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A Spectroscopic Method To Test Blood Sugar


Researchers Show Effectiveness Of New Noninvasive Blood Glucose Test

Blood Sugar/Glucose Test Procedure in Semiautomatic Biochemistry analyser by GOD-POD Method

by University of Missouri-Columbia

For those living with diabetes, monitoring blood glucose accurately is necessary to prevent diabetes-related complications such as heart attacks, blindness and coma. Researchers from the University of Missouri School of Medicine and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology recently evaluated the accuracy of an MIT-developed technology to monitor blood glucose levels without needles or a finger prick. Early results show that the noninvasive technology measures blood glucose levels as effectively as a finger prick testwithout drawing blood.

The study, “Evaluation of accuracy dependence of Raman spectroscopic models on the ratio of calibration and validation points for non-invasive glucose sensing,” measured the blood glucose levels of 20 healthy, non-diabetic adults prior to drinking a glucose-rich beverage. Blood glucose levels were then measured in intervals over the next 160 minutes using three methods: spectroscopy, IV bloodtest and finger prick. The tests are designed to determine how much glucose remains in the blood and if a patient’s insulin-regulating mechanisms are working effectively. The researchers found that spectroscopy predicted glucose values as accurately as a finger prick test.

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More information:Analytical and Bioanalytical ChemistryJournal information:Citation

Raman Spectroscopy For Measurement Of Blood Analytes

Investigators:
Gary L. Horowitz, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Background Measurement of the concentrations of blood analytes presently requires withdrawal of one of more blood samples and a measurement process which often involves sample handling, such as serum extraction, addition of various reagents and a delay in the diagnosis process. Withdrawal of blood exposes personnel to biohazards and causes inconvenience and pain to the patient. A non invasive measurement would revolutionize medical diagnosis by providing analytes concentrations quickly, painlessly and without the use of reagents. A non-invasive measurement would be particularly beneficial where the results are needed quickly or where measurements must be taken frequently. An obvious example of this is the measurement of glucose concentration. Millions of people with diabetes must measure their glucose level multiple times per day to maintain their glucose level within prescribed limits so as to reduce the serious long term consequences of this disease. Non-invasive measurement of glucose is a goal of many institutions. Many technologies are being investigated to reach this goal. Among them are absorption spectroscopy, both by diffuse reflectance and transmission, light polarization and light scattering.

Figure 3. Diagram of the high sensitivity Raman spectroscopy system used for transcutaneous measurements

Recent Publications

In Vivo Blood Glucose Quantification Using Raman Spectroscopy

  • Affiliation College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, China

  • Affiliations Laboratory of Biophysics, Guangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanning, China, College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, China

  • Affiliation Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, United States of America

  • Affiliations Laboratory of Biophysics, Guangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanning, China, College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, China

  • Affiliation College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, China

  • Affiliation Laboratory of Biophysics, Guangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanning, China

  • Affiliation Laboratory of Biophysics, Guangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanning, China

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Oct Imaging Of Fingertip And Nailfold

In this study, a portable spectral domain Optical Coherence Tomography system was applied in collecting images with a light source whose central wavelength is 830 nm. The OCT was controlled by a portable personal computer system operation automatically, and it select a 2-D OCT image every minute. Before storage, the detector is demodulated by a lock-in amplifier and a low-pass filter in the software.


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FIA Biomed Precisa Blood Glucose Meter

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Measuring Glucose Concentration By Nir Absorbance Spectroscopy

Fig.1: Experimental setup for absorbance measurements containing an optical fibre for illumination, an iDus InGaAs DU490A-1,7 detector and spectrometer.

In-vivo monitoring of glucose concentration in blood is a big challenge. The development of equipment is the effort in diagnosis and therapy of diabetes patients to achieve an optimum metabolism control by frequent blood glucose measuring. A non-invasive and simple sensing of glucose is of increasing importance, since the number of diabetes patients increases and more than 70% are living in low and middle income countries.1 Promising approaches are investigations in the near infrared region . The effective penetration depth of light is 60 µm to 3 mm in biological tissue depending on illumination wavelength. For wavelengths between µm glucose absorbance is most significant. Many groups focus their investigations on spectroscopy in this spectral region and on Raman scattering response of glucose. In student projects we spend increasing attention to the spectral region from µm, since largest penetration depth is available within this optical window of biological tissue. For lower wavelengths the absorption of deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin2 so as melanin becomes significant, while for larger wavelengths water absorption is of increasing impact.3 The advantage of the higher penetration depth was the crucial feature for the following investigations with the tradeoff of less significant glucose absorption.


Literature

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Measuring Blood Sugar With Light

Date:
American Institute of Physics
Summary:
One key to healthful living with diabetes is monitoring sugar levels to ensure they remain stable. People can easily do this at home using devices that read sugar levels in a drop of blood. Now a team of researchers has devised a non-invasive way to make monitoring easier. Using infrared laser light applied on top of the skin, they measure sugar levels in the fluid in and under skin cells to read blood sugar levels.

One of the keys to healthful living with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes is monitoring blood glucose levels to ensure they remain at stable levels. People can easily and reliably do this at home using electronic devices that read sugar levels in a tiny drop of blood.

Now a team of German researchers has devised a novel, non-invasive way to make monitoring easier. Using infrared laser light applied on top of the skin, they measure sugar levels in the fluid in and under skin cells to read blood sugar levels. They describe their method in the current edition of Review of Scientific Instruments, which is produced by AIP Publishing.

“This opens the fantastic possibility that diabetes patients might be able to measure their glucose level without pricking and without test strips,” said lead researcher, Werner Mäntele, Ph.D. of Frankfurt’s Institut für Biophysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität.


“Our goal is to devise an easier, more reliable and in the long-run, cheaper way to monitor blood glucose,” he added.

Story Source:

Interview With Sven Delbeck Doctoral Candidate At The South Westphalia University Of Applied Sciences

How To Test Blood Sugar | BEST Methods

22.03.2019

Over six million people in Germany have diabetes. It is estimated that almost 400 million people are affected by this disease worldwide. Diabetes sufferers must prick their fingers several times a day to monitor their blood sugar. Now a doctoral candidate at the Interdisciplinary Center for Life Sciences in Iserlohn, Germany, is researching a modern, non-invasive monitoring method thats designed to measure blood sugar without finger pricks. The tool: laser spectroscopy.

Sven Delbeck


In this MEDICA-tradefair.com interview, Sven Delbeck talks about the importance of large volumes of data in diabetology, describes the role the new method could play in other medical specialties and reveals where there is still room for improvement.

What new opportunities does a world where the healthcare industry is becoming increasingly digital offer diabetes sufferers?

Sven Delbeck: We are now able to analyze large datasets in real-time, which facilitates optimized and personalized treatment approaches for diabetes patients. Smartphones and apps are some of the tools that assist a breakdown and analysis of data generated by self-monitoring of blood glucose . A new generation of biosensor technology makes it possible to collect and analyze continuous glucose data, thus providing an improved quality in intensified insulin therapy. Whats more, apps can track and count carbohydrates and calculate the insulin dose for the patient.

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Clinical Studies On Human Subjects

To test the capability of the iCONIC approach in predicting concentrations from time-resolved spectra, clinical datasets comprised of blood glucose concentrations and Raman spectra are used. These datasets, which were detailed in one of prior reports, were collected from healthy human volunteers undergoing OGTT. Raman spectra were recorded at regular 5min intervals from the forearms of these volunteers. For Raman spectral acquisition, an 830nm diode laser was used as an excitation source with an average power of ca. 300mW in a ~ 1mm2 spot. On the detection end, an f/1.8 spectrograph was coupled to a liquid nitrogen-cooled CCD . Blood was drawn every 10min and analyzed using a clinical glucose system to evaluate the subject’s response. This study protocol was approved by the MIT Committee on the Use of Humans as Experimental Subjects and written informed consent was obtained from each of the volunteers in the study. All the experiments were carried out in accordance with the approved guidelines by the Committee. Data sets from volunteers exhibiting motional artifacts, inadequate SNR in the acquired spectra and impaired glucose tolerance characteristics are excluded from our analysis. Additionally, two subjects who underwent double OGTT were also not considered in this study.


A Spectroscopic Method Used To Test Blood Sugar: Abbr

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How Does It Work

Analysts note that there are systems under development for both home use and in-clinic and hospital settings. The former are wearables, and the latter will be non-wearable or tabletop systems.

They segment the systems under development by the type of technology used to take blood glucose readings mainly, different types of spectroscopy, a technique that identifies chemicals based on the interaction of molecules with electromagnetic radiation.

Spectroscopy, which uses lasers that dont pierce the skin, has been under study for decades. Researchers at MIT and elsewhere are finding that when used properly, it can produce highly accurate continuous data on blood glucose levels.


Noninvasive still has a lot of challenges, said Dr. Barry Ginsberg, who runs Diabetes Technology Consultants and is considered a premier expert on noninvasive diabetes tech after analyzing this trend for more than a decade.

Lets take a look at some companies making progress.

Spectroscopy Technique Shines New Light On Blood Glucose Levels For Diabetics

MIT

Non-invasive technology that monitors blood glucose levels with spectroscopy has been found to work as well as finger prick tests that require a small sample of blood, researchers claim.

Researchers from the University of Missouri School of Medicine and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology recently evaluated the accuracy of the MIT-developed technology.

The study, Evaluation of accuracy dependence of Raman spectroscopic models on the ratio of calibration and validation points for non-invasive glucose sensing, measured the blood glucose levels of 20 healthy, non-diabetic adults prior to drinking a glucose-rich drink.


Blood glucose levels were then measured in intervals over the next 160 minutes using spectroscopy, IV blood test, and finger prick. According to MIT, the tests determine how much glucose remains in the blood and if a patients insulin-regulating mechanisms are working effectively. The researchers found that spectroscopy predicted glucose values as accurately as a finger prick test.

Future studies will examine the accuracy of the technology in patients with diabetes.

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Using Saliva To Monitor Blood Glucose Levels

Traditional blood glucose monitoring for type 1 diabetes has involved using finger sticks to draw and test a small droplet of blood. This can leave fingers sore and calloused as testing occurs multiple times throughout the day to keep blood sugar in check. In addition, it requires a variety of supplies, and lancets used to draw blood must be disposed of safely and properly.

A recent study found that there may be a non-invasive method of monitoring blood sugar that is easier to collect and test: saliva. Researchers found that saliva contains numerous biomarkers that could make it a feasible alternative to blood. In addition, testing is conducted using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy rather than the reagents that are necessary when blood is used. That makes saliva a more sustainable and eco-friendly option as well. In early testing, using saliva was 95.2% accurate in monitoring blood sugar.

Regular testing and monitoring of blood sugar is essential for individuals with type 1 diabetes to reduce risk of hypo- or hyperglycemia as well as diabetic ketoacidosis and other complications. However, many people do not enjoy constant finger sticks. Using saliva and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy or other technology could become a non-invasive, less painful option. This process is still in early stages of testing, and more research is needed to determine its efficacy and how exactly it could be used by patients.

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New Noninvasive Blood Sugar Monitor On Par With Finger Prick

A group of researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of Missouri School of Medicine have recently found a noninvasive blood sugar monitoring device to function as well as finger prick testing in diabetic management. The device integrates laser spectroscopy into a wrist-strap apparatus that is capable of analyzing skin composition to give the user blood glucose readings, greatly facilitating diabetes management. The researchers study was published online on Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry and funded by the NIH, the Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, and the office of Medical Research at the MU School of Medicine.


Typical methods of diabetes management involve blood sampling, whether done via intravenous measurements or the more common finger pricking. With most patients not being able to regularly have blood drawn and finger pricking being a notoriously unpleasant daily routine, noninvasive blood sugar monitoring systems have become a hotbed for biotech research.

The researchers hope that after further testing, the spectroscopy method can be adopted as an alternative blood sugar monitoring method for diabetic patients that cannot often have blood drawn and do not prefer finger pricking. As the technology becomes smaller, the researchers feel its use may be translated outside of the clinical setting as well. Future studies plan to analyze the devices efficacy in diabetic patients.

A Spectroscopic Method Used To Test Blood Sugar: Abbr Answers

Australian scientists develop saliva-based glucose test for diabetics

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Researchers Hope To Make Needle Pricks For Diabetics A Thing Of The Past

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Patients with diabetes have to test their blood sugar levels several times a day to make sure they are not getting too high or too low. Studies have shown that more than half of patients dont test often enough, in part because of the pain and inconvenience of the needle prick.

One possible alternative is Raman spectroscopy, a noninvasive technique that reveals the chemical composition of tissue, such as skin, by shining near-infrared light on it. MIT scientists have now taken an important step toward making this technique practical for patient use: They have shown that they can use it to directly measure glucose concentrations through the skin. Until now, glucose levels had to be calculated indirectly, based on a comparison between Raman signals and a reference measurement of blood glucose levels.

While more work is needed to develop the technology into a user-friendly device, this advance shows that a Raman-based sensor for continuous glucose monitoring could be feasible, says Peter So, a professor of biological and mechanical engineering at MIT.


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