Why Are Infections Risky For People With Diabetes
People with diabetes are more adversely affected when they get an infection than someone without the disease, because you have weakened immune defenses in diabetes. Studies have shown that even those who have minimally elevated blood sugar levels experience worse outcomes with infections. Hospitalized patients who have diabetes do not necessarily have a higher mortality rate due to infections, but they do face longer hospitalization and recovery times.
Diagnosis Of Uti In Women Patients
All women with recurrent UTI should undergo a physical examination to evaluate urogenital anatomy and vaginal tissues estrogenization. Postvoid residual urine volume also should be measured. Diabetes screening is indicated in patients with other risk factors like family history and obesity. Most women do not need extensive urologic investigations. However, women who suffer infection with organisms which is not common causes of UTI, such as Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Pseudomonas, may have structural abnormalities or renal calculi. They would benefit from imaging studies of the upper urinary tract and cystoscopy. Women who have persistent hematuria after recovery of their infection also require a complete urologic workup. Although empirical therapy based on symptoms is generally accurate and cost-effective, women who are thought to be in the early stages of a problem with recurrent UTI should have documented cultures. Urine culture serves as the gold standard for diagnostic accuracy. The standard definition of a UTI on culture is > 100,000 colony forming units per HPF. This value has excellent specificity but a sensitivity of only 50% .
How To Prevent It
If you work to keep your blood sugar under control — follow your meal plan, exercise program, and medicine schedule — you shouldnât have to worry about hyperglycemia. You can also:
- Know your diet — count the total amounts of carbs in each meal and snack.
- Test your blood sugar regularly.
- Tell your doctor if you have repeated abnormal blood sugar readings.
- Wear medical identification to let people know you have diabetes in case of an emergency.
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What Causes Hyperglycemia In People With Diabetes
- The dose of insulin or oral diabetes medication that you are taking is not the most helpful dose for your needs.
- Your body isnt using your natural insulin effectively .
- The amount of carbohydrates you are eating or drinking is not balanced with the amount of insulin your body is able to make or the amount of insulin you inject.
- You are less active than usual.
- Physical stress is affecting you.
- Emotional stress is affecting you.
- You are taking steroids for another condition.
- The dawn phenomenon is affecting you.
Other possible causes
- Pancreatic diseases such as pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and cystic fibrosis.
- Certain medications .
- Gestational diabetes, which happens in 4% of pregnancies, and is due to decreased insulin sensitivity.
- Surgery or trauma.
If You Have Diabetes It Is Twice As Likely You Will Develop A Utiwhy
There are many factors that elevate the risk for UTIs for people with diabetes. Common sense would tell us that higher blood sugars increase the risk for all infections.
Well, believe it or not, the jury is still out on that theory for some odd reason. I could not find any recent research anywhere on this theory or for that matter on urinary tract infections in people with diabetes. My hope is more research will be considered since the complications associated with these infections can be life threatening.
According to a study by Nitzan et al Urinary tract infections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: review of prevalence, diagnosis and management, UTIs are most common and severe with complicated outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. The study presents the reasons people with diabetes are at a greater risk for urinary tract infections which I will outline here:
Likely Causes of Urinary Tract Infections in People with Diabetes:
- Poor metabolic control
- Use of catheters
Poor metabolic control is not completely understood as a cause of utis yet, so this is a great opportunity for researchers. The extra sugar in the urine builds up, causing the growth of extra bacteria which leads to the infection in the bladder.
We have already discussed a few of these, but lets discuss the ones we havent.
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Insulin Resistance In The Making How Does Insulin Resistance Occur
Your liver cells and muscle cells take up over three-quarters of the glucose produced by your meal. When your beta cells release insulin, the insulin drives the sugar from the blood circulation into the cells.
It is anticipated that the liver and muscle cells should be very responsive to the prompt by insulin to allow glucose inside those cells under normal circumstances.
The more responsive the cells are the more insulin sensitive you are.
However, there is a situation where even though your beta cells show a good first phase response, the amount of insulin released will not be enough to clear the circulating glucose from the blood.
This is because of what is happening peripherally in the receiving target organs the liver and muscles.
The cells of the liver and muscles become stubborn. They become unresponsive to the insulin released. The liver and muscle cells are resistant to the signals from the insulin to allow the glucose into them.
What happens next is that the second phase insulin release is prolonged. The second phase response is prolonged because the beta cells have to make and release lots more insulin to force a response by the resistant liver and muscle cells.
This lack of response by the liver and muscle cells to allow glucose inside their cells despite a persistent prompt by insulin is described as insulin resistance and is indeed how insulin resistance occurs.
This is called hyperinsulinemia.
Meaning theyve become resistant!
Signs And Symptoms Of Yeast Infections
The early signs and symptoms of yeast infection are subtle and easy to ignore, but these symptoms become extremely uncomfortable over time.
- Intense itching
- Need to urinate frequently
If youve never experienced a yeast infection, contact your healthcare team to help ascertain what it is before buying any over-the-counter prescriptions. Untreated yeast infections can convert into an extremely uncomfortable and painful problem.
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Sinus Infection And Diabetes
Diabetes is a disease we are all aware of its a condition in your body when your blood sugar level is higher than normal. As simple as it sounds, unfortunately the effects of it are drastic or as many specialist doctors say, its a disease which can affect from the root of your hair to the tip of your toe.
This is mostly due to the effect of diabetes on the immune system of the body- the system that fights to keep germs from invading your body. Because diabetes falters the immune system, your body is a home to many germs and acute fungal infections of the sinus are no exception to that.
However, do not work yourself up cause in this writing,youll get an insight on simple ways you can control your blood sugar level and boost your immune system and hence, to reduce chance of sinus infection and vice versa.
Table of Content
How Is It Treated
If you have diabetes and notice any of the early signs of high blood sugar, test your blood sugar and call the doctor. They may ask you for the results of several readings. They could recommend the following changes:
Drink more water. Water helps remove excess sugar from your blood through urine, and it helps you avoid dehydration.
Exercise more. Working out can help lower your blood sugar. But under certain conditions, it can make blood sugar go even higher. Ask your doctor what kind of exercise is right for you.
Caution: If you have type 1 diabetes and your blood sugar is high, you need to check your urine for ketones. When you have ketones, do NOT exercise. If you have type 2 diabetes and your blood sugar is high, you must also be sure that you have no ketones in your urine and that you are well-hydrated. Then your doctor might give you the OK to exercise with caution as long as you feel up to it.
Change your eating habits. You may need to meet with a dietitian to change the amount and types of foods you eat.
If you have type 1 diabetes and your blood sugar is more than 250 mg/dL, your doctor may want you to test your urine or blood for ketones.
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Surprising Things That Can Spike Your Blood Sugar
When you first found out you had diabetes, you tested your blood sugar often to understand how food, activity, stress, and illness could affect your blood sugar levels. By now, youve got it figured out for the most part. But thenbam! Something makes your blood sugar zoom up. You try to adjust it with food or activity or insulin, and it dips really low. Youre on a rollercoaster no one with diabetes wants to ride.
Do you know all of these blood sugar triggers?
Knowledge is power! Look out for these surprising triggers that can send your blood sugar soaring:
Candidiasis In Women With Diabetes
It is also known as vulvovaginal candidiasis in women and is a yeast infection that affects the vagina, vulva and around the opening of the vagina. It can be extremely uncomfortable and difficult to remove.
The vagina depends on yeast at all times to maintain the complex environmental balance that keeps this part of your body healthy.
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Who Is At Risk For Gum Disease And High Blood Sugar
If you have diabetes, you are at a higher risk level for gum disease and if you have gum disease, you become prone to developing diabetes because of the affect bacteria in your blood stream has in raising your blood sugar for prolonged periods of time. Here are a few things to know about people with gum disease:
- People with severe gum disease have more significant long term struggles with blood sugar levels.
- They are at a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes as well as gestational diabetes.
- People have a harder time managing their type 2 diabetes symptoms when they have a tooth infection.
- They are also at a higher risk of harming their kidneys, eyes, or any other organs affected by diabetes and also have a greater chance of having a heart attack or stroke.
As you can see, this can become a very serious thing if left unchecked, but there are plenty of ways to keep these bad things from happening. Prevention
Whether or not you have diabetes, gum disease, or tooth infections, it is a great idea to keep your mouth as healthy as possible. If you have any questions or concerns about oral health, consult a dentist immediately, and get the knowledge required to keep your mouth clean and healthy. Here are a few things you can do to prevent gum disease and high blood sugar:
What Is A Yeast Infection
A yeast infection is basically an overgrowth of yeast, according to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention . Yeast is technically a fungus, which means they are also fungal infections.
Yeast infections are a common struggle for people with diabetes because high blood sugars can easily feed the growth of yeast. When theres excess sugar in your blood, there will inevitably be excess sugar in your urine which leads to the overgrowth of yeast.
The overgrowth of this otherwise healthy fungus can lead to extremely uncomfortable symptoms that are impossible to ignore.
Yeast infections can occur in women and men, but they are certainly much more common in women.
Yeast infections in women with diabetes: Also known as vulvovaginal candidiasis in women, a yeast infection affects the vagina, vulva, and around the opening of your vagina. They can be extremely uncomfortable and hard to get rid of.
The vagina actually relies on the presence of yeast at all times to maintain the complex environmental balance that keeps this part of your body healthy.
Yeast infections in men with diabetes: Also known as jock itch, yeast infections in men are frequently related to wearing sweaty jock-straps for too long. Especially when combined with high blood sugar levels, a sweaty jockstrap creates the ideal environment for the overgrowth of yeast.
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What Should My Blood Sugar Level Be
When you’re first diagnosed with diabetes, your diabetes care team will usually tell you what your blood sugar level is and what you should aim to get it down to.
You may be advised to use a testing device to monitor your blood sugar level regularly at home.
Or you may have an appointment with a nurse or doctor every few months to see what your average blood sugar level is. This is known as your HbA1c level.
Target blood sugar levels differ for everyone, but generally speaking:
- if you monitor yourself at home with a self-testing kit a normal target is 4 to 7mmol/l before eating and under 8.5 to 9mmol/l 2 hours after a meal
- if your HbA1c level is tested every few months a normal HbA1c target is below 48mmol/mol
The Diabetes UK website has more about blood sugar levels and testing.
How Do I Prevent Hyperglycemia
- Exercise to help lower blood sugar. Work with your healthcare provider to make a daily activity plan.
- Follow your meal plan if you have one. Learn how carbohydrates impact your blood sugar, and work with your diabetes care team to find the best meal plan for you.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Dont smoke.
- Limit drinking alcohol. Alcohol can raise blood sugar levels, but can also cause dangerously low blood sugar levels. Work with your provider to determine how much is safe to drink.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 02/12/2020.
Signs & Symptoms Of A Yeast Infection
The earliest signs and symptoms of a yeast infection are subtle, and easy to ignore at first, but eventually, these symptoms will become extremely uncomfortable.
- Intense itching
- Needing to pee frequently
If youve never experienced a yeast infection before, contact your healthcare team to help determine what it is before purchasing any over-the-counter medications. Untreated yeast infections can become extremely uncomfortable and painful.
When To Get Urgent Medical Attention
Contact your diabetes care team immediately if you have a high blood sugar level and experience the following symptoms:
- feeling or being sick
- a fever for more than 24 hours
- signs of dehydration, such as a headache, dry skin and a weak, rapid heartbeat
- difficulty staying awake
These symptoms could be a sign of a more serious complication of hyperglycaemia, such as diabetic ketoacidosis or a hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state, and you may need to be looked after in hospital.
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How Can A Uti Be Prevented
Amanda recently contacted TheDiabetesCouncil asking how to prevent utis. There are quite a few simple things you can start doing today, that will ensure you dont end up with another dreaded infection tomorrow!
The very best prevention is to practice good hygiene techniques. Now remember, I am a Registered Nurse, so I am going to get technical here ladies:
- Wiping front to back is essential! Transfer of bacteria is definitely going to happen otherwise and will cause a urinary tract infection for sure!
- Go to the bathroom and empty your bladder immediately after sexual intercourse ladies.
- Every time you empty your bladder, try to make sure it is fully empty.
- Drink lots of water to keep your bladder flushed out current recommendation is 8 eight ounce glasses per day .
- Keep your diabetes under the best possible control!
I know these techniques seem simple at first glance, but if you are vigilant, they really will work. Practicing these preventive techniques will go a long way in helping you stay healthy and hopefully avoid a potentially life threatening urinary tract infection.
Why does diabetes increase the risk for getting a UTI?
Weaker immune system, poor blood circulation, high blood glucose levels, and diabetic neuropathy are some of the reasons why people with diabetes are at a higher risk
I am a woman, am I at a high risk of getting a UTI?
What are the signs and symptoms that I should watch for?
The most common signs and symptoms to look out for are:
Diabetes Infections And You
What is diabetes?
Diabetes is a chronic disease in which blood glucose levels are above normal levels. In people who have diabetes, the pancreas either doesnt make enough insulin , or it doesnt use insulin as well as it should. This can cause sugar to build up in the blood and lead to serious health complications like blindness, heart disease, kidney failure, and lower-extremity amputations.
Most cases of diabetes fall into two broad categories:
Type 1 diabetesIn type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin. The body breaks down the sugars and starches you eat into a simple sugar called glucose, which it uses for energy. Insulin is a hormone that the body needs to get glucose from the bloodstream into the cells of the body.
Type 2 diabetesType 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. If you have type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, your pancreas makes extra insulin to make up for it. But, over time it isnt able to keep up and cant make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose at normal levels.
Why are people with diabetes more prone to infections?
What are common infections for people with diabetes?
The most common infections in people with diabetes include:
How can people with diabetes prevent infection?
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