Further Information And Support
For further information and support contact your doctor, practice nurse, or: Diabetes New Zealand Freephone: 0800 DIABETES Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.diabetes.org.nz Diabetes New Zealand provides education and support resources specifically for young New Zealanders with type 1 diabetes and many of its branches around the country host Type 1 youth support groups.
Kids Health Website: www.kidsheatlh.org.nz
Blood Glucose And Ketone Monitoring
Optimal diabetic control requires frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose levels as this allows for timely adjustments in insulin doses. People with type 1 diabetes learn how to self-monitor their blood glucose levels using a pocket-sized blood glucose meter and adjust their insulin doses accordingly. Depending on whether daily insulin injections or an insulin pump is used, blood glucose levels will likely need to be checked at least four times a day. Careful monitoring is the only way to ensure that blood glucose levels remain within the target range. Blood glucose testing involves using a lancing device to prick the skin to draw a drop of blood, which is placed on a test strip. The test strip is then inserted into a blood glucose meter, which provides a blood glucose level reading. Blood ketone meters, which measure blood ketone levels, and work in a similar way to blood glucose devices, are available to test for ketoacidosis.
What Does Insulin Do
Insulin is a hormone from the pancreas that allows sugar to enter the cells. Insulin also lowers the amount of sugar in the bloodstream. Without insulin, sugar is unable to enter the cells. This means that cells that make up muscles and other tissues will not be able to receive their main source of energy. People with type 1 diabetes may have a buildup of sugar in the bloodstream, causing life-threatening conditions.
Insulin Side Effects
- Weight gain when you first start using insulin
- Lumps, scars, or rash at injection site
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Latent Autoimmune Diabetes In Adults
Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, or LADA, is a form of type 1 diabetes occurring in adulthood. Latent means that it comes on quite slowly, so the signs and symptoms of LADA has a slower course of onset compared to type 1 diagnosed in children, sometimes developing over a period of years. Because these symptoms develop slowly, LADA can be sometimes be incorrectly diagnosed as type 2 diabetes in adults.
Some of the characteristics of LADA include:
- Age of onset is 30 years and older
- Healthy weight with BMI is less than 25kg/m2
- Personal or family history of autoimmune disease
- Gradual onset
Cuts And Wounds That Dont Heal Quickly
Neutrophils, white blood cells that fight any infection in our body, are sensitive to high blood glucose levels. These are a very important part of the immune system and are at the front line of a person’s defences, keeping bacterial infections at bay. In a person with diabetes, the ability of neutrophils to fight infections decreases, causing you to be less likely to able to fight infections, like a cut or a wound found on your foot.
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Who Gets Type 1 Diabetes
Although type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, about two-thirds of new cases are diagnosed in individuals under the age of 19. Researchers have noted two peak times for development of type 1 diabetes the first is in early childhood and the second occurs at puberty. Type 1 diabetes affects males and females equally, and is more common in Caucasians than in other ethnic groups. A family history of type 1 diabetes also increases one’s risk for developing type 1 diabetes.
What Causes Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is thought to be caused by an autoimmune reaction that destroys the cells in the pancreas that make insulin, called beta cells. This process can go on for months or years before any symptoms appear.
Some people have certain genes that make them more likely to develop type 1 diabetes, though many wont go on to have type 1 diabetes even if they have the genes. Being exposed to a trigger in the environment, such as a virus, is also thought to play a part in developing type 1 diabetes. Diet and lifestyle habits dont cause type 1 diabetes.
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Diagnosis For Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
The development of type 1 diabetes is usually abrupt. If a person experiences symptoms, they should seek medical attention as soon as possible.
A person with type 2 diabetes in its initial stages, on the other hand, may have no symptoms. A normal blood test, however, will reveal high blood sugar levels at this point.
Obese people and others who are at risk for type 2 diabetes ought to have their glucose concentrations checked on a regular basis. They may have diabetes or prediabetes if their blood sugar levels are high.
Prediabetes is a condition in which a persons blood sugar levels are elevated but not elevated enough to be detected with type 2 diabetes.
The tests listed below can help identify type 1 or type 2 diabetes, however not all of them are appropriate for both:
The chart below indicates which test findings suggest diabetes:
|Below 200||Below 100|
It is advised that patients aged 45 and up to be screened for type 2 diabetes on a routine basis. Younger people who are more at risk of developing diabetes, such as those with a family history of the disease, should be tested for type 2 diabetes on a frequent basis.
At home, people can monitor their blood sugar levels. A person who does not have diabetes but is concerned about readings from a home test should see their doctor.
Type 1 Diabetes Treatment: Artificial Pancreas
Researchers are developing an artificial pancreas. This device is a combination of an insulin pump and continuous glucose monitoring system controlled by a computer program. The goal for the system is to have a device that mimics the function of a normal pancreas.
Additional Information on Diabetes
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What Problems Can Happen With Type 1 Diabetes
Not having the right amount of sugar in the blood can lead to:
- hyperglycemia: This is when blood sugars are too high. Kids with hyperglycemia may be extra thirsty, pee more than usual, and lose weight. High blood sugars can be treated. If they arent, kids can develop health issues later in life.
- diabetic ketoacidosis : This serious condition needs treatment right away. When theres not enough insulin in the body to let the glucose into the cells, the body starts to break down fat instead of sugar. Symptoms of DKA can include nausea, vomiting, belly pain, fast breathing, and, in severe cases, unconsciousness.
- hypoglycemia: This is when blood sugars are too low and can sometime happen when people are being treated for diabetes. Symptoms can include headache, weakness, shakiness, anxiety, and sweating.
- growth and development problems: Some kids might grow slower than their peers or start puberty later than usual.
Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes
- taking insulin daily by injections or by insulin pump
- self-monitoring of blood sugar levels by regularly testing droplets of blood in a glucose meter
- self-testing of urine with a test strip for high levels of ketones not routinely, but when problems are suspected
- regulating diet so intake is matched to insulin and exercise
- increasing the amount of slow carbohydrates in the diet, such as beans and fruit, which take longer to be absorbed by the body
- regular exercise
- maintaining regular checks for diabetes complications.
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Try To Lose Weight If You Are Overweight Or Obese
Excess weight is also a risk factor for heart and blood vessel disease. Getting to a perfect weight is often unrealistic. However, if you are overweight, losing some weight will help.
Some of these lifestyle issues may not seem to be relevant at first to young children who are diagnosed as having diabetes. However, as children grow, a healthy lifestyle should be greatly encouraged for the long-term benefits. See the separate leaflet called Cardiovascular Disease .
Frequent Thirst And Urination
The average human being should be able to urinate between 4 to 5 times each day however, victims of diabetes usually do so more often. The reason for this is not farfetched, normally the body tends to reabsorb glucose as it passes through the kidney.
However, when diabetes increases your blood sugar levels, the kidney may find it difficult to get it all back in. this leads to a situation where the body creates more urine and that means fluid loss. Peeing so much would mean you have fewer fluids in your body thus making you thirstier.
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Type 1 Diabetes And Exercise
People with type 1 diabetes benefit from exercise, but they need to take precautions to prevent sudden drops in blood glucose levels. Diabetics should check their blood sugars before exercising and may require eating a snack before or during exercise. They may need to adjust their insulin dosage before exercising to ensure they stay within normal ranges of blood glucose. People with type 1 diabetes may also need to check their urine for ketones â ketones suggest that your blood sugar is too high. Strenuous activity needs to be avoided if ketones are detected or if your blood sugar level is either high or low before exercise.
How Does Type 2 Diabetes Develop
Type 2 diabetes develops when the body becomes resistant to insulin or when the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin. Exactly why this happens is unknown, although genetics and environmental factors, such as being overweight and inactive, seem to be contributing factors.
Herein, how do you develop diabetes?
It’s clear that certain factors increase the risk, however, including:
Secondly, what is the root cause of diabetes?
Diabetes is a disease caused by excess insulin, not excess blood sugar. In other words, high blood sugar is a symptom, but not the root cause. After eating carbohydrates, the carbs break down into sugar, trigger the pancreas to produce insulin and are then stored in liver and muscles.
How do I know if I’m diabetic?
Type 2 diabetes is a common condition that causes high blood sugar levels. Early signs and symptoms can include frequent urination, increased thirst, feeling tired and hungry, vision problems, slow wound healing, and yeast infections.
How long can you live with type 2 diabetes?
People with type 1 diabetes, on average, have shorter life expectancy by about 20 years. People with type 2 diabetes, on average, have shorter life expectancy by about 10 years.
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Southern Cross Medical Library
The purpose of the Southern Cross Medical Library is to provide information of a general nature to help you better understand certain medical conditions. Always seek specific medical advice for treatment appropriate to you. This information is not intended to relate specifically to insurance or healthcare services provided by Southern Cross. For more articles go to the Medical Library index page.
Can A Blood Glucose Meter Help To Diagnose Type 1 Diabetes
A blood glucose meter may be helpful in indicating whether you or a family member may have diabetes.
It is not essential to have a blood glucose meter but it may be considered useful in a family with a history of type 1 diabetes or autoimmune conditions.
A blood glucose result, taken over 2 hours after eating, of over 7.8 mmol/l could indicate a presence of diabetes.
If high results are being recorded 2 hours after eating for consecutive meals, contact your GP who will be able to carry out a diagnosis
It is important that devices used to draw blood from fingers are not shared to prevent the risk of blood borne illnesses.
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Find Treatment In Chicago
Consult with a medical doctor if you begin experiencing symptoms such as increased thirst, blurry vision, tingling and/or numbing in your body, or anything else that feels out of your normal. Testing for diabetes can be started by a simple blood test. If diabetes is detected, treatment will need to be started right away. Treatment will depend on the type and severity of the diagnosis. Nutrition counseling, lifestyle changes, blood sugar monitoring, and medication are the most common forms of treatment. If either type of diabetes is left untreated long enough, there could be fatal consequences. Please consult your doctor for regimented treatment if you have been diagnosed with diabetes.
If you are looking for a diabetes specialist in Chicago, join Dedication Health. Dedication Health is a concierge medical practice in Chicagos North Shore. The concierge physicians at Dedication Health are board-certified in internal medicine and specialist care including Endocrinology.
Learn more about concierge medicine from the links listed below.
- Fax: 224-505-5960
Dedication Health is accredited in computed tomography as the result of a recent review by the American College of Radiology
Dedication Health is an accredited COLA laboratory and is in compliance with CLIA and is recognized by the Joint Commission.
Excessive Thirst Frequent Urination And Dehydration
When your blood glucose levels are high, a lot of the glucose passes into the urine. Because you lose so much glucose in your urine, it also attracts water, meaning that you are making a lot of urine, causing you to need to pee a lot! If you are going to the toilet a lot and losing a lot of urine, then you are quickly becoming dehydrated. If you are dehydrated, you become thirsty. People who feel they need to constantly drink lots of water may have diabetes and it needs to be tested for.
If a person with high sugar tries to deal with their thirst by drinking sugar containing fruit juice or soft drinks, then the blood sugar can become even higher, resulting in even more sugar in the urine, even more urine production, and worsening dehydration. Its a vicious cycle.
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Overweight Obesity And Physical Inactivity
You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index charts.
How Long Does It Take To Develop Diabetes
Diabetes is without doubt people do not like to hear about. The reason for this is simply that it has a way of reducing the quality of life its victims can live. It is, however, a fact that early detection of this disease can go a long way towards ensuring that its effects are controlled. Knowing how long it takes to develop in the system may well be the secret key to living a strong life even with the disease.
How long does it take to develop diabetes?
How long does it take to develop diabetes? The answer to this question is dependent on a few factors. First, you must understand that most of the early signs arise from a higher level of glucose in your body.
The signs can be so insignificant that you may not notice them. This is more so with type 2 diabetes. Most people may not even observe they have it until they start observing the long term damages that are caused by the condition. In the case of type 1 diabetes, its symptoms usually occur rather quickly in a few days or even weeks.
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Why Does The Pancreas Stop Making Insulin
In most cases, type 1 diabetes is thought to be an autoimmune disease. The immune system normally makes antibodies to attack germs called bacteria and viruses, and also other germs. In autoimmune diseases the immune system makes antibodies against part or parts of the body. If you have type 1 diabetes you make antibodies that attach to the beta cells in the pancreas. These are thought to destroy the cells that make insulin. It is thought that something triggers the immune system to make these antibodies. The trigger is not known but a popular theory is that a virus triggers the immune system to make these antibodies.
Rarely, type 1 diabetes is due to other causes. For example, severe inflammation of the pancreas, or surgical removal of the pancreas for various reasons.
Type 1 Diabetes
Myths About Type 2 Diabetes
As I mentioned some facts like type 2 are associated with weight gain and it usually occurs in older age. But its increasing in the younger population, due to shifts in diet, activity levels and higher rates of obesity. Now, You must be thinking that if you eat too much sugar in your younger days, that will develop type 2 diabetes?
Well, the answer is no! Eating too much sugar itself might not cause diabetes in early adulthood. But, eating excessive calories and sugar can lead to an increase in weight that can result in insulin resistance, which could then result in diabetes.
There is another myth, people having type 2 most often think that they no longer can take most foods. For them, they can still enjoy bread, pasta, and dessert. But The difference is about frequency and quantity.
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