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How Do You Treat Type 2 Diabetes




There Are A Number Of Treatments Available To Help You Manage And Treat Your Diabetes Everyone Is Different So Treatment Will Vary Depending On Your Own Individual Needs

If you have type 1 diabetes, you’ll need to use insulin to treat your diabetes. You take the insulin by injection or by using a pump

If you have Type 2 diabetes, you may have to use insulin or tablets, though you might initially be able to treat your diabetes by eating well and moving more

If you have another type of diabetes, your treatment options may be different. Speak to your healthcare professional, or call our helpline if you’re not sure.


Your GP or a healthcare professional can help you find the right diabetes treatment plan to suit you and your lifestyle.

People with diabetes are entitled to free prescriptions.

What Are The Considerations When Choosing Medicines For Type 2 Diabetes

Here are some of the things you and your doctor may consider when deciding on the best treatment for you.


Your blood glucose levels: Most people with type 2 diabetes are started on metformin tablets. If you are unable to take metformin because of side effects or other reasons, your doctor will consider starting you on other medicines. If your blood glucose level is not successfully lowered with metformin alone, your doctor may add in other medicines that act in different ways to lower your blood glucose levels.Other health conditions: Some conditions you might have along with diabetes can affect how well your medicines control your blood glucose, including:

  • obesity
  • heart disease
  • kidney disease.

Funding: Some newer diabetes medicines such as empagliflozin and vildagliptin are funded for people with diabetes if they meet certain criteria . Read more about a special authoritySide effects: When deciding on the best medicine for you, discuss with your healthcare provider the possible side effects of the medicine and how these are likely to affect you or your lifestyle, such as weight gain or the risk of hypoglycaemia .

Heres The Thing: Your Journey Is Unique And It Starts Fresh Every Day

No matter where you are with type 2 diabetes, there are some things you should know. It’s the most common form of diabetes. Type 2 means that your body doesn’t use insulin properly. And while some people can control their blood sugar levels with healthy eating and exercise, others may need medication or insulin to manage it. Regardless, you have everything you need to fight it. Not sure where to start? Learn how type 2 diabetes is diagnosed.


Why Building A Diabetes Care Team Is Critical For Effective Treatment

Your first resource for managing your type 2 diabetes should be your primary care provider. Dungan notes that most patients with type 2 diabetes can rely on their primary care provider alone for treatment. But it’s important for people with type 2 diabetes to also stay up-to-date on diet and treatment recommendations by coordinating with a certified diabetes care and education specialist , a dietitian, a nurse, or a pharmacist, Dungan says. That education should occur at the time of diagnosis and periodically over time, such as after the start of insulin therapy, Dungan explains.

As for other healthcare professionals, Dungan notes that many diabetes clinics have dietitians, pharmacists, social workers, and mental health specialists on staff, all of whom can contribute to your diabetes management program.

“Each patient’s needs will differ slightly,” Dungan says. For instance, if you can’t control your blood sugar with standard treatments or if you have frequent or severe hypoglycemia, you should consider seeing an endocrinologist, she says. If you develop complications, like heart disease, kidney disease, or foot ulcers, you may need to see specialists who can help with those conditions.


Each year, everyone with diabetes should see an eye care professional who has experience treating patients with diabetes, Dungan says.

Does Metformin Cause Weight Loss What To Know Before You Take It

How Do You Get Type 2 Diabetes

Side effects, such as stomach upset and diarrhea, are generally minimal, especially when you start with low doses and increase them slowly, Dungan says. She notes that metformin does not cause hypoglycemia  or weight gain, unlike some other treatments, has a long safety record, and is relatively affordable.


It Lowers Fasting Blood Sugar And May Decrease Hemoglobin A1c

Several controlled studies have demonstrated that cinnamon is excellent at reducing fasting blood sugar.

One review of 543 people with type 2 diabetes found taking it was associated with an average decrease of over 24 mg/dL .

While these study results are pretty clear, studies investigating its effects on hemoglobin A1c, a measure of long-term blood sugar control, have yielded conflicting results.

Some studies report significant decreases in hemoglobin A1c, while others report no effect (


).

Summary:

Cinnamon can lower blood sugar following meals, possibly by slowing stomach emptying and blocking digestive enzymes.

Pramlintide Is An Injected Medicine For People With Diabetes

In type 1 diabetes, Pramlintide can be taken in addition to insulin to help control mealtime blood sugars.

If you have type 2 diabetes, and lifestyle changes are not enough to control your blood sugar, typically, your provider will first start you on a single medicine. For people who are overweight, metformin is usually the first medicine prescribed.

If the single therapy doesn’t work, additional medicines can be added. Many people require treatment with 2, 3 or more different medicines. If pill combinations don’t work, an injected medicine such as an incretin-based medicine, amylin analog or insulin may be prescribed. Medicine combinations are used because different drugs target different parts of your body’s sugar regulation system.


Rarely, and usually due to other medical conditions, it may be necessary to start medical treatment of type 2 diabetes with insulin therapy. Usually, however, insulin therapy is the last treatment prescribed and is added only after the oral medications or non-insulin injections don’t work.

In this section, you will learn about the non-insulin treatment options for glucose control in type 2 diabetes including the different medicines, how they work, doses, and side effects.

What Should I Know About Side Effects Of Diabetes Medicines

Side effects are problems that result from a medicine. Some diabetes medicines can cause hypoglycemia, also called low blood glucose, if you don’t balance your medicines with food and activity.


Ask your doctor whether your diabetes medicine can cause hypoglycemia or other side effects, such as upset stomach and weight gain. Take your diabetes medicines as your health care professional has instructed you, to help prevent side effects and diabetes problems.

What Is The Best Food To Eat When Your Blood Sugar Is High

The best foods to eat to lower blood sugar include whole grains, fruits and vegetables, oatmeal, nuts, and garlic. If you have diabetes or may be at risk, it’s important to regulate your blood-sugar levels with a healthy diet and be aware of the glycemic index of the foods you eat.

READ: How long does it take to get a refund from Capella University?


Type 2 Diabetes Treatment: Types Benefits And Side Effects

Canva; Everyday Health

Treatment of type 2 diabetes is not just limited to the occasional doctor’s visit: It includes important types of self-care in addition to regular medical care from doctors and other healthcare providers, such as dietitians or mental health professionals.

  • Lifestyle measures to manage stress and other issues
  • Specialist care to prevent and treat complications
  • Bariatric surgery

“The cornerstone for all diabetes treatment is a healthy lifestyle that includes diet and exercise,” says Kathleen Dungan, MD, an endocrinologist at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center in Columbus. “However, diabetes is a progressive disease, which means that even if you are doing well with a particular treatment, it usually fails over time.”

A1C

The latest updates about care for type 2 diabetes can be found in the American Diabetes Association’s 2021 Standards of Medical Care, which lists updates related to diabetes, complications, new technology, and more.


Why Physical Activity Is A Key Tool For Diabetes Treatment

managing type 2 diabetes

That includes 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, such as:

  • Brisk walking
  • Taking group fitness classes that involve using weights
  • Using weight machines at the gym
  • Heavy gardening or other activities that can help you build and maintain muscle

Diabetes Care

  • Overhead arm stretches
  • Torso twists
  • Leg lifts or extensions

Before you start a formal exercise program or increase your level of physical activity, it’s important to get your doctor’s okay and to find out which activities you can do safely.


neuropathyulcersdiabetic retinopathy

In general, though, exercise can provide people with diabetes with a lot of benefits. “Exercise is critical for patients with diabetes to maintain heart health and maintain glucose control,” Dungan says. She notes that it’s best to consult your doctor about the type and frequency of activity that is best for you, and find out whether you need additional testing to make sure that exercise is safe. Still, Dungan says, brisk walking nearly every day for at least 30 minutes is safe and beneficial for most people.

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It Contains Antioxidants That Provide Many Health Benefits

A quick glance at cinnamon’s nutrition facts may not lead you to believe that it’s a superfood .


But while it doesn’t contain a lot of vitamins or minerals, it does contain large amounts of antioxidants, which give it its health benefits.

In fact, one group of scientists compared the antioxidant content of 26 different herbs and spices and concluded that cinnamon had the second highest amount of antioxidants among them .

Antioxidants are important because they help the body reduce oxidative stress, a type of damage to cells, which is caused by free radicals.

One study showed that consuming 500 mg of cinnamon extract daily for 12 weeks decreased a marker of oxidative stress by 14% in adults with prediabetes .

This is significant, since oxidative stress has been implicated in the development of nearly every chronic disease, including type 2 diabetes .

Summary:

Cinnamon does not contain many vitamins or minerals, but it is loaded with antioxidants that decrease oxidative stress. This may potentially protect against diabetes.

Steps For Weight Loss Success If You Have Type 2 Diabetes

How the Ketogenic Diet Works for Type 2 Diabetes

In addition, most people with diabetes should limit carbohydrates, especially simple carbohydrates, like white bread, white pasta, white potatoes, white rice, cereal, and juice, Dungan says. They should instead opt for more fresh vegetables and fruit, or high-fiber, whole-grain options, she says, noting that the Mediterranean diet is rich in vegetables, lean meats and fish, and monounsaturated fats, and low in saturated fats and simple carbohydrates. She adds that you can monitor your glucose levels one to two hours after meals to determine how the food you’ve eaten affects your blood sugar.

What Is The Most Effective Treatment For Type 2 Diabetes

Metformin is a tried and tested medicine that has been used for many decades to treat type 2 diabetes, and is recommended by most experts as first-line therapy. It is affordable, safe, effective, and well tolerated by most people. When metformin does not adequately control blood sugar, another medication must be added.

New Abridged Recommendations For Primary Care Providers

The American Diabetes Association has released condensed recommendations for Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes: Abridged for Primary Care Providers, highlighting recommendations most relevant to primary care. The abridged version focusses particularly on the following aspects:

  • Prediabetes

  • Diagnosis and treatment of vascular complications

  • Intensification of insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes

The recommendations can be accessed at American Diabetes Association DiabetesPro Professional Resources Online, Clinical Practice Recommendations – 2015.

Type 2 diabetes care is best provided by a multidisciplinary team of health professionals with expertise in diabetes, working in collaboration with the patient and family. Management includes the following:

  • Appropriate goal setting

  • Appropriate self-monitoring of blood glucose

  • Regular monitoring for complications

  • Laboratory assessment

Ideally, blood glucose should be maintained at near-normal levels . However, focus on glucose alone does not provide adequate treatment for patients with diabetes mellitus. Treatment involves multiple goals .

Aggressive glucose lowering may not be the best strategy in all patients. Individual risk stratification is highly recommended. In patients with advanced type 2 diabetes who are at high risk for cardiovascular disease, lowering HbA1c to 6% or lower may increase the risk of cardiovascular events.

Your Doctor Might Prescribe Other Injectable Medication

Insulin isn’t the only type of injectable medication used to treat type 2 diabetes. In some cases, your doctor might prescribe other injectable medications.

For example, medications such as GLP-1 receptor agonists and amylin analogues need to be injected. These types of medications both work to keep your blood glucose levels within a normal range, particularly after meals.

Depending on the specific medication, you might need to inject it daily or weekly. If your doctor prescribes an injectable medication, ask them when and how to take it. They can help you learn how to safely inject the medication and dispose of used needles.

How To Treat Type 2 Diabetes: Can Natural Remedies Help

This article was medically reviewed by Sarah Gehrke, RN, MS. Sarah Gehrke is a Registered Nurse and Licensed Massage Therapist in Texas. Sarah has over 10 years of experience teaching and practicing phlebotomy and intravenous therapy using physical, psychological, and emotional support. She received her Massage Therapist License from the Amarillo Massage Therapy Institute in 2008 and a M.S. in Nursing from the University of Phoenix in 2013.There are 9 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. In this case, several readers have written to tell us that this article was helpful to them, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 43,658 times.

Type 2 diabetes, the most common form of diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body processes sugar. It’s often triggered by lifestyle factors like weight, blood pressure, and diet. While there’s no cure for diabetes, you can manage the condition and live a normal life. Fortunately, most of the treatment options are lifestyle-based and entirely natural. Some dietary and exercise changes could make a big difference. If you still don’t see an improvement in your symptoms, then your doctor will probably prescribe some medications to help treat your condition. Follow all of your doctor’s suggestions for the most effective treatment regimen.

Most Diabetes Medications Effectively Lower Blood Sugar

The blood sugar goal for most adults with diabetes is an A1C of below 7%. In many people, diet and exercise are not enough to reach this goal, and one or more medications may be needed. Metformin is a tried and tested medicine that has been used for many decades to treat type 2 diabetes, and is recommended by most experts as first-line therapy. It is affordable, safe, effective, and well tolerated by most people.

When metformin does not adequately control blood sugar, another medication must be added. It is at this point that doctors and patients must choose among the many drugs and drugs classes available to treat type 2 diabetes. In general, for people who are at low risk of heart disease or have no history of diabetic kidney disease, most diabetes medications that are added to metformin effectively reduce blood sugars and can lower A1C to under 7%.

So, how to choose a medication? Each person with diabetes has their own goals, needs, and preferences. Before choosing a medicine, it is important to ask some relevant questions: Is my blood sugar at goal? Is this medicine affordable? Do I have heart or kidney disease? What are the side effects? Is it a pill or injection, and how often is it taken?

Regardless of which treatment is selected, the American Diabetes Association Standards of Care recommends reassessment of diabetes control every three to six months, followed by modifications to treatment if needed.

Newer Diabetes Medications: Weighing Benefits And Risks

Lately, newer treatment options for type 2 diabetes — glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors — have been heavily advertised. These newer drug classes lower blood sugar and also have cardiovascular and kidney benefits.

GLP-1 receptor agonists are drugs that lower blood sugar after eating by helping your body’s insulin work more efficiently. All drugs in this group except one are self-injected under the skin, either daily or weekly. Several of them, such as liraglutide , semaglutide , and dulaglutide , have been shown to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease in people who are at high risk for it, or who have pre-existing heart disease. They also promote weight loss. Some people who take GLP-1 receptor agonists may have side effects such as nausea and vomiting, and in very rare cases pancreatitis.

While these diabetes medications certainly have more to offer than just improvements in blood sugar, they remain costly and inaccessible to many individuals. This is why it is essential to have an open and honest conversation with your doctor about what is most important to you and what aligns with your goals and preferences. Management of a complex disease like diabetes takes an entire team, with you being the key team member.

It Can Imitate Insulin And Increase Insulin Sensitivity

In those with diabetes, either the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin or cells do not respond to insulin properly, leading to high blood sugar levels.

Cinnamon may help lower blood sugar and fight diabetes by imitating the effects of insulin and increasing glucose transport into cells .

It can also help lower blood sugar by increasing insulin sensitivity, making insulin more efficient at moving glucose into cells.

One study of seven men showed taking cinnamon increased insulin sensitivity immediately after consumption, with the effect lasting at least 12 hours .

In another study, eight men also demonstrated increases in insulin sensitivity following two weeks of supplementing with cinnamon .

Summary:

Cinnamon can lower blood sugar by acting like insulin and increasing insulin’s ability to move blood sugar into cells.

It May Lower The Risk Of Common Diabetes Complications

Blood Sugar Solution: how do you treat type 2 diabetes ...

This spice does more than lower fasting blood sugar and decrease blood sugar spikes following meals.

It may also lower the risk of common diabetes complications.

People with diabetes have twice the risk of heart disease as people without it. Cinnamon may help lower this risk by improving established risk factors for heart disease .

A review of controlled studies in people with type 2 diabetes found that taking cinnamon was associated with an average decrease in “bad” LDL cholesterol of 9.4 mg/dL and a decrease in triglycerides of 29.6 mg/dL (

22 ).

However, this research has only been completed in test tubes and animals. Further studies in humans are needed to confirm these findings.

Summary:

Cinnamon may help lower the risk of diseases related to diabetes, such as heart disease and Alzheimer’s disease.

Insulin Secretagogues: Sulfonylureas And Meglitinides

Sulfonylureas and meglitinides or glinides are two different classes of oral hypoglycaemic drugs but they have a common mechanism of action, and both stimulate pancreatic beta cells to release insulin.

Sulfonylureas are a classic first or second-line therapy for patients with T2DM, and since their introduction to clinical practice in the 1950s they have been widely utilized. They are utilized as a reference to compare the efficacy and safety of other hypoglycaemic drugs excluding insulin.

Meglitinides stimulate insulin release through similar mechanisms but they have a different subunit binding site, with a more rapid absorption and more rapid stimulus to insulin secretion. However they require more frequent dosing.

Mechanism of action: Both sulfonylureas and glinides base their mechanism of action in increasing insulin secretion, which is regulated by ATP-sensitive potassium channels located in the membrane of pancreatic beta cells. Although the receptor’s binding site is different for sulfonylureas and glinides, they both induce channel closure and cell depolarization leading to an increase in cytoplasmic calcium level and consequently insulin secretion.

As a result of their pharmacokinetics, the major effect of sulfonylureas is the reduction of fasting plasma glucose concentrations, whereas meglitinides mainly reduce postprandial glucose.

Side effects: Loss of efficacy, hypoglycaemia and weight gain represent the main problems related to the use of these drugs.

What Other Injectable Medicines Treat Type 2 Diabetes

Besides insulin, other types of injected medicines are available. These medicines help keep your blood glucose level from going too high after you eat. They may make you feel less hungry and help you lose some weight. Other injectable medicines are not substitutes for insulin. Learn more about noninsulin injectable medicines.

Include Mental Health In Your Diabetes Treatment Plan

“When depression, anxiety, or other mental health problems occur, they often interfere with a patient’s ability to deal with diabetes,” Dungan says. “Therefore, it is important to recognize these disorders and treat them effectively.”

Your doctor or diabetes educator can help, Dungan says. Even if you do not have a diagnosed mental health disorder, you can and should talk to these professionals about diabetes-related distress or stressors, and learn about key resources or relaxation techniques to help you manage the disease.

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How Nutrition Therapy Can Help Treat Type 2 Diabetes

If you have diabetes, you should have an individualized meal plan focused on management of not only blood sugar but also blood cholesterol and blood pressure, as well as any other medical conditions.

There’s no one-size-fits-all eating plan for people with diabetes, so it is often helpful to work with a registered dietitian or diabetes educator to  that meets your diabetes goals and accommodates your food likes and dislikes, daily schedule, and usual access to food.

portion control

She notes that working with a registered dietitian to develop a meal plan to fit your lifestyle can be helpful, “since the best diet is the one that a person can stick with for the long haul.” To that end, Dungan notes that keeping a food log can help you understand how many calories, carbs, and nutrients you’re consuming.

How To Get Free Prescriptions For Diabetes Medicine

You’re entitled to free prescriptions for your diabetes medicine.

To claim your free prescriptions, you’ll need to apply for an exemption certificate. This is known as a PF57 form. To do this:

  • fill in a form at your GP surgery
  • you should get the certificate in the post about a week later – it’ll last for 5 years
  • take it to your pharmacy with your prescriptions

Save your receipts if you have to pay for diabetes medicine before you receive your exemption certificate. You can claim the money back if you include the receipts along with your completed PF57 form.

Nonsteroidal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists

In July 2021, the FDA approved finerenone for inhibition of the effects in adults of chronic kidney disease associated with type 2 diabetes, including sustained estimated glomerular filtration rate decline, end-stage kidney disease, cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and hospitalization for heart failure. It is the first nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor  antagonist to be approved for this purpose. Approval was based on the FIDELIO-DKD trial, a placebo-controlled study that involved over 5700 patients with type 2 diabetes to whom the maximum-tolerated dose of renin-angiotensin system inhibitor was already being administered. However, until more data on finerenone is gathered, RASIs and SGLT-2 inhibitors will be the preferred agents for slowing chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes.

Update On The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Correspondence to: Dr. Francisco Javier del Cañizo-Gómez, Professor of Medicine, Chief of Endocrinology Section, Section of Endocrinology, Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, Avda Gran Vía del Este 80, 28031 Madrid, Spain. gro.dirdam.dulas@gozinacjf

Telephone: +34-91-1918000 Fax: +34-91-1918878

How Cinnamon Lowers Blood Sugar And Fights Diabetes

Figure 1 from Novel pharmacological approaches to the ...

Keith Pearson, PhD, RD

Diabetes is a disease characterized by abnormally high blood sugar.

If poorly controlled, it can lead to complications like heart disease, kidney disease and nerve damage .

Treatment often includes medications and insulin injections, but many people are also interested in foods that can help lower blood sugar.

One such example is cinnamon, a commonly used spice that’s added to sweet and savory dishes around the world.

It provides many health benefits, including the ability to lower blood sugar and help manage diabetes.

This article tells you everything you need to know about cinnamon and its effects on blood sugar control and diabetes.


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