Can Thin People Get Type 2 Diabetes
Miller points to promising research on genetic risk scoring thats taking place through Trialnet, an international research consortium focused on type 1 diabetes that is supported by the National Institutes of Health and private organizations. For example, a Trialnet study published in July 2018 in Diabetes Care looked at the relatives of people with type 1 diabetes who did not have the disease themselves but did have one or more positive autoantibodies, and it found that a higher genetic risk score helped to predict their progression to developing type 1 diabetes.
The biggest challenge in that area of research that baffles most scientists is: Why do some patients who have demonstrated positive autoantibodies not go on to develop type 1 diabetes? Thats the area of greatest interest because if you can identify some factor in those patients that is protective, that keeps individuals with positive autoantibodies from killing off their beta cells, then perhaps you could prevent them from developing type 1 diabetes.
In the meantime, even without genetic testing, it is wise to pay attention to your family history and risk factors for diabetes. Not every case of diabetes is preventable, but neither is your DNA your destiny in every instance.
Other Types Of Diabetes
Other forms of insulin-resistant diabetes also can be seen in gestational diabetes, polycystic ovary disease, acanthosis nigricans, and maturity-onset diabetes of the young or MODY. Insulin resistant diabetes can also be unmasked by medications like prednisone. In rare cases, a type similar to Type1 diabetes but without antibodies may be seen following trauma to the pancreas, following pancreatic surgery, or after exposure to toxins like Agent Orange. This type is insulin-dependent because no insulin can be produced once the pancreas is removed or severely damaged.
Are Grapes Ok For Diabetics
Although this may seem high, a single serving of grapes has a glycemic index of 25. This is a low score compared to other types of fruits. Grapes can be beneficial for diabetics because they rank lowly on the glycemic index. When eaten in moderation, grapes can provide great health benefits for diabetics.
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Why Is Blood Sugar Checked At Home
Home blood sugar testing is an important part of controlling blood sugar. One important goal of diabetes treatment is to keep the blood glucose levels near the normal range of 70 to 120 mg/dl before meals and under 140 mg/dl at two hours after eating. Blood glucose levels are usually tested before and after meals, and at bedtime. The blood sugar level is typically determined by pricking a fingertip with a lancing device and applying the blood to a glucose meter, which reads the value. There are many meters on the market, for example, Accu-Check Advantage, One Touch Ultra, Sure Step and Freestyle. Each meter has its own advantages and disadvantages . The test results are then used to help patients make adjustments in medications, diets, and physical activities.
While there are no guidelines to use A1c as a screening tool, it gives a physician a good idea that someone is diabetic if the value is elevated. Right now, it is used as a standard tool to determine blood sugar control in patients known to have diabetes.
The American Diabetes Association currently recommends an A1c goal of less than 7.0% with A1C goal for selected individuals of as close to normal as possible without significant hypoglycemia. Other Groups such as the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists feel that an A1c of <6.5% should be the goal.
When To See A Dermatologist
Diabetes can cause many other skin problems. Most skin problems are harmless, but even a minor one can become serious in people who have diabetes. A board-certified dermatologist can recognize skin problems due to diabetes and help you manage them.
Are all dermatologists board certified?
No. See what it takes to become board certified.
ImagesImage 1: Image Courtesy of Clark C. Otley, MD. All Rights Reserved
Images 3, 7, 8, 9: Used with permission of the American Academy of Dermatology National Library of Dermatologic Teaching Slides.
Image 2 from DermNetNZ
Some images used with permission of Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
ReferencesCohen Sabban, EN. Cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus from A to Z. Focus session presented at: 74th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology; March 4-8, 2016; Washington D.C.
Duff M, Demidova O, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus. Clinical Diabetes. 2015;33:40-8.
Kalus AA, Chien AJ, et al. Diabetes mellitus and other endocrine disorders. In: Wolff K, Goldsmith LA, et al. Fitzpatricks Dermatology in General Medicine . McGraw Hill Medical, New York, 2008:1461-70.
McKinley-Grant L, Warnick M, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of systemic disease. In: Kelly AP and Taylor S. Dermatology for Skin of Color. . The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. China, 2009:481-4.
Morgan AJ and Schwartz RA. Diabetic dermopathy: A subtle sign with grave implications. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58:447-51.
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How Do I Take Insulin
You can take insulin in one of the following ways:
- Injection:Injectable insulin uses a vial and syringe. With each injection, you use a syringe to get the correct dose of insulin out of the vial. Insulin can be injected into the fatty tissue of your belly, upper arm, thigh or buttocks. Injections are usually the least expensive way to take insulin.
- Pen: Insulin pens are similar to injections, but the pen is pre-filled with insulin. The disposable pen needles are usually more convenient than shots. They can also be a good option for people with low vision.
- Pump:Insulin pumps are devices that deliver insulin continuously and on demand. They mimic the way your pancreas would naturally release insulin. Pumps deliver insulin through a tiny catheter that goes in your belly or another fleshy area of your body.
Your healthcare provider may recommend three to four doses of insulin each day. Long-acting insulin usually works best when taken at about the same time every day. Take rapid-acting insulin within 15 minutes before a meal. This ensures its ready to work when glucose from food enters your blood.
Type 1 Diabetes And Covid
If you have type 1 diabetes, your risk of exposure to COVID-19 is about the same as other people who do not have type 1 diabetes. However, if you work in health care or are involved in activities that expose you to the virus, then your risk is higher than the general population. For example, people who work closely with the public are more likely to be exposed to the virus.
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What Are The Acute Complications Of Diabetes
Acute complications of type 2 diabetes
In patients with type 2 diabetes, stress, infection, and medications can also lead to severely elevated blood sugar levels. Accompanied by dehydration, severe blood sugar elevation in patients with type 2 diabetes can lead to an increase in blood osmolality . This condition can worsen and lead to coma . A hyperosmolar coma usually occurs in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Like diabetic ketoacidosis, a hyperosmolar coma is a medical emergency. Immediate treatment with intravenous fluid and insulin is important in reversing the hyperosmolar state. Unlike patients with type 1 diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes do not generally develop ketoacidosis solely on the basis of their diabetes. Since in general, type 2 diabetes occurs in an older population, concomitant medical conditions are more likely to be present, and these patients may actually be sicker overall. The complication and death rates from hyperosmolar coma is thus higher than in diabetic ketoacidosis.
Blood glucose is essential for the proper functioning of brain cells. Therefore, low blood sugar can lead to central nervous system symptoms such as:
What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening condition. It happens when your liver breaks down fat to use as energy because theres not enough insulin and therefore glucose isnt being used as an energy source. Fat is broken down by the liver into a fuel called ketones. The formation and use of ketones is a normal process if it has been a long time since your last meal and your body needs fuel. Ketones are a problem when your fat is broken down too fast for your body to process and they build up in your blood. This makes your blood acidic, which is a condition called ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis can be the result of uncontrolled Type 1 diabetes and less commonly, Type 2 diabetes.Diabetic ketoacidosis is diagnosed by the presence of ketones in your urine or blood and a basic metabolic panel. The condition develops over several hours and can cause coma and possibly even death.
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How Do I Check My Blood Glucose Level Why Is This Important
Checking your blood glucose level is important because the results help guide decisions about what to eat, your physical activity and any needed medication and insulin adjustments or additions.
The most common way to check your blood glucose level is with a blood glucose meter. With this test, you prick the side of your finger, apply the drop of blood to a test strip, insert the strip into the meter and the meter will show your glucose level at that moment in time. Your healthcare provider will tell you how often youll need to check your glucose level.
What Types Of Diabetes Require Insulin
People with Type 1 diabetes need insulin to live. If you have Type 1 diabetes, your body has attacked your pancreas, destroying the cells that make insulin. If you have Type 2 diabetes, your pancreas makes insulin, but it doesnt work as it should. In some people with Type 2 diabetes, insulin may be needed to help glucose move from your bloodstream to your bodys cells where its needed for energy. You may or may not need insulin if you have gestational diabetes. If you are pregnant or have Type 2 diabetes, your healthcare provider will check your blood glucose level, assess other risk factors and determine a treatment approach which may include a combination of lifestyle changes, oral medications and insulin. Each person is unique and so is your treatment plan.
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Can Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes And Gestational Diabetes Be Prevented
Although diabetes risk factors like family history and race cant be changed, there are other risk factors that you do have some control over. Adopting some of the healthy lifestyle habits listed below can improve these modifiable risk factors and help to decrease your chances of getting diabetes:
- Eat a healthy diet, such as the Mediterranean or Dash diet. Keep a food diary and calorie count of everything you eat. Cutting 250 calories per day can help you lose ½ pound per week.
- Get physically active. Aim for 30 minutes a day at least five days a week. Start slow and work up to this amount or break up these minutes into more doable 10 minute segments. Walking is great exercise.
- Lose weight if you are overweight. Dont lose weight if you are pregnant, but check with your obstetrician about healthy weight gain during your pregnancy.
- Lower your stress. Learn relaxation techniques, deep breathing exercises, mindful meditation, yoga and other helpful strategies.
- Limit alcohol intake. Men should drink no more than two alcoholic beverages a day; women should drink no more than one.
- Get an adequate amount of sleep .
- Take medications to manage existing risk factors for heart disease or to reduce the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes as directed by your healthcare provider.
- If you think you have symptoms of prediabetes, see your provider.
Can Diabetes Cause Hearing Loss
Scientists dont have firm answers yet but there appears to be a correlation between hearing loss and diabetes. According to the American Diabetes Association, a recent study found that hearing loss was twice as common in people with diabetes versus those who didnt have diabetes. Also, the rate of hearing loss in people with prediabetes was 30% higher compared with those who had normal blood glucose levels. Scientists think diabetes damages the blood vessels in the inner ear, but more research is needed.
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Diabetes And Brain Health
If you have diabetes, your doctor may screen you for depression or cognitive impairment. Older adults with diabetes are at higher risk for these conditions, compared with others their age who do not have diabetes. Having depression or cognitive impairment can make diabetes self-care challenging.
Your diabetes management plan will cover how to:
- Track your glucose levels. Very high glucose levels or very low glucose levels can be risky to your health. Your plan will show how often you should check your glucose and how often to get the A1C test. If you are managing your diabetes without taking insulin, you may not need to check your glucose as often.
- Make healthy food choices. The food you eat affects glucose levels, so its important to learn whats best for you to eat, how much, and when. If you are overweight, work with your health care team to come up with a plan to lose weight.
- Be active. Walking and other forms of daily exercise can help improve glucose levels in older people with diabetes. Set a goal to be more active most days of the week, and create a plan for being physically active that fits into your life and that you can follow. Your health care team can help.
- Take your medicines. You should take medicine as prescribed even when you feel good. Tell your doctor if you have any side effects or cannot afford your medicines. Also, let your doctor know if you have trouble taking your medicine or keeping track of your medication schedule.
Diabetes Symptoms In Men
All that said, men arent off the hook when it comes to diabetes. Not only are men more likely to get type 2 diabetes at a lower weight than women are, but men are actually more likely to have undiagnosed diabetes. So dont put off those regular checkups with your doctor, and make an appointment if you notice any strange new symptoms.
Your diabetes also triples your risk of getting erectile dysfunction . Thankfully, there are tons of treatments available to help with this. Due to nerve damage with diabetes, you also may experience overactive bladder or incontinence, UTIs, or a condition called retrograde ejaculation, which is when semen is released into your bladder.
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Lack Of Insulin Production
This is primarily the cause of type 1 diabetes. It occurs when insulin-producing cells are damaged or destroyed and stop producing insulin. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar into cells throughout the body. The resulting insulin deficiency leaves too much sugar in the blood and not enough in the cells for energy.
Blood Sugar And Diabetes
Many diabetes symptoms area related to blood-sugar levels being out of your target range, so monitoring your blood-sugar levels to make sure they are within your range is the name of the game with diabetes. Your doctor will let you know whether you should be monitoring your blood glucose regularlythis is usually the case for people who are taking insulin or who are having trouble controlling their blood-glucose levels. They will likely want you to keep a strict log of your blood-sugar readings so they can review it with you during appointments.
Typical targets are 80-130 mg/dL before a meal and under 180 mg/dL one to two hours after you start eating a meal. That said, these targets can vary depending on things like your age, so your doctor can let you know what your target blood-sugar range should be.
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What Is Continuous Glucose Monitoring
Advancements in technology have given us another way to monitor glucose levels. Continuous glucose monitoring uses a tiny sensor inserted under your skin. You don’t need to prick your finger. Instead, the sensor measures your glucose and can display results anytime during the day or night. Ask your healthcare provider about continuous glucose monitors to see if this is an option for you.
Will Exercise Help
Your doctor probably wonât want you to lose weight. Thatâs because you may not have enough muscle mass. You could lose even more if you focus on aerobic workouts. That would be bad for your blood sugar and your bones.
Compared to fat, muscle does a better job of getting sugar out of your blood, says Carnethon. This helps you use it for energy. She and her colleagues think strength training instead of cardio may help you better manage your lean diabetes. Theyâre doing more research to find out.
âIf we can help build muscle, then thereâs more receptors for the blood sugar to go to,â says Carnethon. âSo maybe we can clear blood sugar from the bloodstream more efficiently.â
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What Is Skinny Fat
Your body mass index is a measure of your height and weight. Doctors often use this number to find out if youâre obese. But it doesnât tell you anything about your body makeup. You may be less healthy if you have a lot of weight in your middle. âWhen fat is in the waist area, it tends to secrete more hormones that are bad for your blood vessels,â says Carnethon.
âCentral obesityâ can lead to high blood sugar because âthe fat in the belly is able to produce substances that interfere with the action of insulin,â says Fogelfeld.