Saturday, May 21, 2022
HomeMust ReadHow Is Diabetes Linked With Homeostasis

How Is Diabetes Linked With Homeostasis


Protects Against Autoimmune Diabetes

Diabetes 2, Blood Glucose Homeostasis

Type 1 diabetes is among the most prevalent autoimmune diseases around the world. It is mediated by T-cells , which causes an autoimmune reaction and make the body attack its own cells of the pancreas, thus obstructing the production of insulin.

Capsaicin has immune-modulating properties when administered orally. This vital compound can help suppress the autoimmune reactions in the pancreatic lymph nodes and may help protect against the development of type 1 diabetes.

Adipose Tissue: A Lipid Storage Organ

Positive energy balance leads to adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. In the context of obesity, even though AT may have a strategic protector effect, it can also be considered dangerous when in excess. Despite the clinical importance of obesity, knowledge about its origin, development and functions related to AT is still limited.

Rethinking The Role Of The Brain In Glucose Homeostasis And Diabetes Pathogenesis

1University of Washington Medicine Diabetes Institute, Department of Medicine, and


2Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Address correspondence to: Michael W. Schwartz, Department of Medicine, University of Washington at South Lake Union, 850 Republican St, N335, Box 358055, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. Phone: 206.897.5288 Email: .

Find articles byBrown, J.in: |PubMed ||

1University of Washington Medicine Diabetes Institute, Department of Medicine, and

2Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.


Address correspondence to: Michael W. Schwartz, Department of Medicine, University of Washington at South Lake Union, 850 Republican St, N335, Box 358055, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. Phone: 206.897.5288 Email: .

Find articles byScarlett, J.in: |PubMed |

1University of Washington Medicine Diabetes Institute, Department of Medicine, and

2Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Address correspondence to: Michael W. Schwartz, Department of Medicine, University of Washington at South Lake Union, 850 Republican St, N335, Box 358055, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. Phone: 206.897.5288 Email: .


J Clin Invest.

Also Check: What Level Of A1c Requires Insulin

Sexual Health And Fertility

Diabetes-related damage to blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system may have a negative effect on sexual function and the bodyâs ability to send and respond to sexual stimuli.

Erectile dysfunction is more than three times more likely to develop in men with diabetes, and it can appear 10â15 years earlier than in those without the condition.

Other ways in which diabetes can affect peopleâs confidence in their sex life include:


  • the conditionâs impact on mental health
  • worry that sex may lower glucose levels, leading to hypoglycemia
  • uncertainty about what to do with an insulin pump

However, there are ways of overcoming all of these problems.

Learn more here about how diabetes can affect a personâs sex life and how to manage these complications.

Prior Studies Of Glucose Homeostasis Measures And Cardiac Autonomic Function

Diabetes mellitus &  Periodontium

Our findings are in agreement with prior studies among people without diabetes showing associations between glucose homeostasis measures with reduced cardiac autonomic function, although results are inconsistent across glucose homeostasis measures . The atherosclerosis risk in communities study reported weak, inverse cross-sectional associations between fasting glucose and insulin quintiles with RMSSD and RR among people without diabetes . Insulin quintiles were negatively associated with SDNN, whereas no associations were seen between glucose quintiles and SDNN. In contrast, fasting glucose was negatively associated with SDNN and positively associated with heart rate, but not associated with RMSSD in a study among participants with normal fasting glucose levels . In a healthy cohort free of diabetes, fasting insulin and fasting glucose levels were associated with reduced cardiac autonomic function measured by baroreflex sensitivity, but the association with fasting glucose was no longer significantly associated after adjusting for age, blood pressure and body mass index . The patterns as reported above include HRV measured from 2 min to 24 h ECGs, and are similar to our results from 10 s ECGs. However, both fasting insulin and fasting glucose levels were associated with lower RMSSD, SDNN and RR in this study, with stronger associations among subgroups.

You May Like: What Is A High Blood Sugar Reading

Link Between Zinc And Diabetes Mellitus

Reports from 70 years ago show that there is a 50% reduction in pancreatic zinc concentration in diabetic cadavers compared to non-diabetic cadavers suggesting a relationship between zinc, the pancreas and diabetes . Then 40 years ago, it was first demonstrated that diet-induced zinc deficiency in rodents reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and islet insulin content , . Two years later, a study showed decreased -cell granulation during zinc deficiency . Some studies report that in diabetic patients there is a reduction in plasma zinc concentration, high zincuria and severe and ubiquitous cellular depletion of zinc compared to healthy individuals . Furthermore, zinc supplementation has positive effects on glucose handling in humans .


Reduced pancreatic zinc concentrations have been reported in several genetic mouse models of type 2 diabetes , . Dietary zinc supplementation in db/db mice was shown to normalize pancreatic zinc levels and attenuate hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia suggesting a role for zinc in pancreatic function . In a similar fashion, zinc supplementation in ob/ob mice was also shown to elevate islet insulin content and attenuate fasting hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and the abnormally high insulin secretory response to glucose in isolated pancreatic islets . Conversely, db/db mice given a zinc-deficient diet had exacerbated fasting hyperglycaemia associated with reduced circulating insulin .

The Special Role Of Liver In Glucose Homostasis

Figure 3. Regulation of glucokinse activity in liver by liver specific GCK regulatory protein . In hepatocytes, in contrast to glucose sensing cells in regulation of glucose homeostasis, there is a specific inhibitory protein that regulates GCK activity. The figure schematically represents the association of GCK and GCKRP and the metabolic factors that affect that interaction. This can be considered a switch that turns enzyme activity on when blood glucose in elevated and off when it is low relative to normal . SL, small lobe LL, large lobe ARR, allosteric regulatory region SIS-1, sugar isomerase SIS-2, sugar isomerase-2 LID, lid.

Recommended Reading: What Is A Normal A1c For A Non Diabetic

Altered Glucose Homeostasis Is Associated With Increased Serum Apelin Levels In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

  • Affiliation Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

  • Affiliation Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy

  • Affiliation Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

  • Affiliation Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

  • Affiliation Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy

  • Affiliation Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy

  • Affiliation Department of Clinical Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

  • Affiliations Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascolar and Metabolic Research, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

  • Affiliation Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy

  • Affiliation Department of Clinical Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

  • Affiliation Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

  • Affiliation Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy

Iiiadenosine And Glucose Homeostasis

glucose homeostasis – diabetes type 1

Glucose homeostasis is partly linked to lipid metabolism. Obesity-induced glucose tolerance was reduced in animals overexpressing A1 receptors in adipose tissue . Similarly, treatment with an A1 agonist improved glucose tolerance in animals on a diabetogenic diet . This suggests that activation of A1 receptors could significantly enhance insulin sensitivity. Indeed, as mentioned earlier, this is certainly true in adipose tissue. However, this may not be physiologically very important as the glucose uptake in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle is unaltered in A1 mice compared to control animals. Glucose tolerance was also unaffected. Surprisingly, it was reported that an antagonist at A1 receptors could improve glucose tolerance . However, this antagonist is also an antagonist at A2B receptors, and this may be the relevant receptor. Indeed, BW-1433 reduces insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue, where A1 receptors are the relevant receptors, but increases it in muscle , where A2B receptors may be more important. Reducing ATP conversion to adenosine results in reduced hepatic insulin sensitivity , but it is not known to what extent adenosine and its receptors are responsible.

Figure 3. Endogenous adenosine reduces insulin release and controls its pulsatility. Pancreas from wild-type or A1R knockout mice were perfused with low or high glucose medium. Results are mean and SEM from for separate experiments.


Also Check: Which Pancreatic Cells Release Insulin And Glucagon

Zinc Transport Mechanisms In Mammalian Cells

In mammalian cells, the magnitude of the zinc gradient present at the plasma membrane rivals even that of calcium. Typically, the intracellular free zinc concentration is within the pico- to nano-molar range, whereas the total zinc in plasma is in the micro-molar range. Cellular zinc content is tightly regulated by both zinc-binding proteins and zinc transport mechanisms. Several zinc transport mechanisms are known to exist in different cellular systems, although very little is known about them. Zinc ATPases have been described in bacteria and plants , , although there is no evidence thus far of such a zinc pump in mammalian cells. A H+/Zn2+ exchanger was reported to catalyse the active extrusion of zinc into vacuoles in plants and a similar antiporter is suggested to exist in rodent brain , . Also in mammalian cells, zinc can be extruded by a reversible Na+/Zn2+ exchange mechanism, which utilizes the sodium electrochemical gradients maintained by the Na+/K+ ATPase . A Ca2+/Zn2+ exchanger has also been described, which catalyse the removal of Zn2+ driven by the inward Ca2+ gradient mediated by the Ca2+ pump . Zinc is also thought to enter via N-methyl-d-aspartate- and a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid/kainate-activated calcium permeable channels in neurons , . Furthermore, in chromaffin cells and myocytes, zinc enters through voltage-gated calcium channels , .

Prostaglandins Glucose Homeostasis And Diabetes Mellitus

Prostaglandins of the E series are implicated as regulators of glucose homeostasis because of their effects on glucose production and secretion of insulin and glueagon. PGE is postulated to play a role in the pathophysiology of insulin secretion in adult-onset diabetes mellitus. Evidence supporting this hypothesis includes the demonstration that PGE inhibits glucose-induced acute insulin responses in normal humans. Moreover, drugs that inhibit synthesis of PGE improve abnormal insulin secretion in human subjects with Type II diabetes mellitus.Continue reading > >

You May Like: What Does It Feel Like When Your Blood Sugar Is Too High

Why Does Diabetes Affects Homeostasis

Your temperature is just one example of how the system tries to maintain a balance of every process in your body. There is so much going on inside your body, if it were not for your closely monitored homeostasis, survival wouldnt be possible. This is how the human body evolved over thousands of years.


But diabetes affects this state of balance in your body. When you have diabetes, it means a lot of extra sugar in your system, which is just there doing nothing. Excess of everything is bad and same is true for excess of sugar.

When something disturbs your bodies homeostasis, you should expect some consequences. Its like youre crashing your car into something. When that happens, you should expect some damages to your vehicle. Similarly, the following are some outcomes of excess sugar in your body:

  • Extra sugar damages your brain.
  • It hurts your heart.
  • It makes you pee more.
  • You eat more food.
  • Excess sugar leads to higher blood pressure.
  • Your eye sight may worsen.
  • You may develop sores on your body parts.
  • Your weight may increase.

Reduces The Risk Of Obesity

Mechanisms Linking Glucose Homeostasis and Iron Metabolism ...

Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the development of diabetes. According to a study, consumption of food items rich in capsaicin is linked to a reduced prevalence of obesity.

Capsaicin in chilli peppers, when consumed for the long term by overweight or obese individuals, can help show positive results related to weight management. As chilli can easily be combined with most recipes, long-term consumption is easier. Reduction of weight may help reduce the risk of obesity-related diabetes.

Read Also: What Is A Normal A1c For A Non Diabetic


Is Having A Dry Throat Related To Diabetes

A dry throat can feel like someone has sandpapered the lining of your throat. Your throat might feel itchy and even sore. The dry, rough feeling may also occur in your mouth and on your tongue. There are many causes of a dry throat including being dehydrated, excessive exercise, habitually sleeping or breathing with an open mouth and an infection. If your dry throat persists no matter how much water you drink and you also seem to urinate more than usual, you may have diabetes. Diabetes UK, UK Diabetes Resource, Diabetes Symptoms, Diabetes Diet, Gestational Diabetes notes that thirst, excess urination and a dry mouth are signs of diabetes.Continue reading > >

The Kidneys And Urinary System

Over time, high blood sugar levels can damage blood vessels in the kidneys. This damage prevents the kidneys from filtering waste out of the blood. In time, kidney failure can result.

The NIDDK describe diabetes as one of the main causes of kidney disease. It affects 1 in 4 people with diabetes.

Diabetic nephropathy is kidney disease that affects people with diabetes. Learn more here.

Diabetes increases the risk of a number of eye problems, some of which can lead to vision loss.


Short-term problems include blurred vision, due to high blood sugar. Long-term complications include:

You May Like: How Much Metformin Can I Take

The Endocrine System And Energy Metabolism

Metabolism encompasses all the chemical reactions which enable the body to sustain life. Energy metabolism is one of these processes and is vital for life.

The body is able to use fat, protein and carbohydrate to provide energy.

The pancreas plays an important part in energy metabolism by secreting the hormones insulin and glucagon which respectively make glucose and fatty acids available for cells to use for energy.


Correlation Between The Presence Of Gck And Glucose Response By Cells Contributing To Glucose Homeostasis

glucose homeostasis – diabetes type 2

Pancreatic -cells respond to increased glucose by releasing somatostatin which acts locally as a paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon release rather than a systemic hormone . Glucose sensing by -cells most likely involves GCK for sensing as indicated by substantial expression of the gene as measured by single cell RNA-seq. It should be noted that pancreatic -, -, and -cells have a common progenitor cell which could help explain the obvious similarities in their glucose sensing pathways. -cells also respond directly to a physiological amino acid mixture independently of glucose, perhaps the consequence of membrane depolarization caused by sodium co-transport being sufficient to reach the threshold for secretory response .

Read Also: How Many Points Does Metformin Lower Blood Sugar

Evidence Of A Role For The Brain In Normal Glucose Homeostasis

There is little question about the brains ability to influence key determinants of glucose homeostasis in response to input from humoral signals, including glucose and other nutrients , and nutritionally relevant hormones . What remains uncertain is the extent to which such effects participate in day-to-day glucoregulation. Studies that use loss-of-function strategies are perhaps most useful in this regard, but the interpretation of such data is often confounded by associated changes of food intake and body weight, by off-target effects , or by compensatory adaptations triggered by the experimental intervention. Beyond these concerns, the impact of brain-directed interventions on circulating glucose levels is often seemingly negated by adjustments of islet function. Together, these observations raise the possibility that although the brain can affect glucose homeostasis, day-to-day control of blood glucose levels does not require its active participation. Clearly, new approaches that can tease apart the contributions of brain and islet to overall control of glucose homeostasis are needed.

The Pancreas Is An Exocrine And Endocrine Organ

Anatomical organization of the pancreas. The exocrine function of the pancreas is mediated by acinar cells that secrete digestive enzymes into the upper small intestine via the pancreatic duct. Its endocrine function involves the secretion of various hormones from different cell types within the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The micrograph shows the pancreatic islets. LM × 760 . Adapted from Human Anatomy and Physiology, an OpenStax College resource.

Maintenance of blood glucose levels by glucagon and insulin. When blood glucose levels are low, the pancreas secretes glucagon, which increases endogenous blood glucose levels through glycogenolysis. After a meal, when exogenous blood glucose levels are high, insulin is released to trigger glucose uptake into insulin-dependent muscle and adipose tissues as well as to promote glycogenesis.


Also Check: Why Does Blood Sugar Go Up At Night

On The Presence Of Other Glucose Sensors Of Physiological Significance But Not For Glucose Homeostasis

It is well recognized that taste receptors detect glucose and these are associated with the lining of the gut as well as the tongue, oral mucosa and olfactory system. Taste receptors have a broad specificity and detect many molecules with different structures as sweet. Taste receptor molecular specificity is very different from that of the highly specific glucose sensing involved in glucose homeostasis. Taste receptors do not directly affect glucose homeostasis, but cells with sweet taste receptors do communicate with the brain and other organs involved in glucose homeostasis. Generally their influence is related to control nutrient intake from the environment and not glucose in the blood. If such non-specific receptors were to play a significant role in control of blood glucose this would introduce serious instability. It is not surprising that the gut has cells that use GCK for glucose sensing as well as cells with taste receptors.

RELATED ARTICLES

Popular Articles