What Cdc Is Doing
CDC is working to reverse the epidemic by helping to identify people with prediabetes, prevent type 2 diabetes and diabetes complications, and improve the health of all people with diabetes. Those efforts include:
Explore the Division of Diabetes Translation website to learn more about how CDC is translating science into practice to realize its vision: a world free of the devastation of diabetes.
Type 1 Vs Type 2 Diabetes: Whats The Difference
Type 2 diabetes is not the same as Type 1 diabetes. In Type 1 diabetes, your pancreas doesnt make any insulin. In Type 2, your pancreas doesnt make enough insulin, and the insulin it is making doesnt always work as it should. Both types are forms of diabetes mellitus, meaning they lead to hyperglycemia .
Type 2 diabetes usually affects older adults, though its becoming more common in children. Type 1 diabetes usually develops in children or young adults, but people of any age can get it.
What Causes Type 2 Diabetes
Insulin is a hormone made by your pancreas that acts like a key to let blood sugar into the cells in your body for use as energy. If you have type 2 diabetes, cells dont respond normally to insulin this is called insulin resistance. Your pancreas makes more insulin to try to get cells to respond. Eventually your pancreas cant keep up, and your blood sugar rises, setting the stage for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. High blood sugar is damaging to the body and can cause other serious health problems, such as heart disease, vision loss, and kidney disease.
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Are You At Risk
More than 30 million people in the U.S. have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. However, nearly 24% of people with the condition are undiagnosed,so it’s important to be aware of the symptoms, especially if you:
- Are over 45
- Have been diagnosed with prediabetes
- Are overweight and/or inactive
- Are African American, an Alaska native, American Indian, Asian American, Hispanic/Latino, or Pacific Islander American and are experiencing symptoms
The Role Of Insulin In The Cause Of Type 2 Diabetes
To understand why insulin is important, it helps to know more about how your body uses food for energy. Your body is made up of millions of cells. To make energy, these cells need food in a very simple form. When you eat or drink, much of the food is broken down into a simple sugar called glucose. It moves through your bloodstream to these cells, where it provides the energy your body needs for daily activities.
Insulin and other hormones control the amount of glucose in your bloodstream. Your pancreas is always releasing small amounts of insulin. When the amount of glucose in your blood rises to a certain level, the pancreas will release more insulin to push more glucose into the cells. This causes the glucose levels in the blood to drop.
To keep blood glucose levels from getting too low , your body signals you to eat and releases some glucose from the stores kept in the liver. It also tells the body to release less insulin.
People with diabetes either don’t make insulin or their body’s cells can no longer use their insulin. This leads to high blood sugars. By definition, diabetes is:
- A blood glucose level of greater than or equal to 126 milligrams per deciliter of blood after an 8-hour fast
- A non-fasting glucose level greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL, along with symptoms of diabetes
- A glucose level greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL on a 2-hour glucose tolerance test
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Ethnicity And Type 2 Diabetes
Like many other chronic diseases, ethnicity may play a role in promoting increased risk of developing diabetes, particularly type 2 diabetes.
The prevalence of diabetes in the U.S. varies depending on ethnic group:
- Caucasian: 7.1%
- Black: 12.6%
- Native American Indians: 33%
These stats clearly show that, among the U.S. population, Native Americans have a much higher prevalence of diabetes than any other ethnic group.
Similarly, the Indigenous peoples of Australia are three times as likely as non-Indigenous Australians to have diabetes .
And in the UK, the prevalence of diabetes is 6 times higher for people of South Asian origin and 3 times higher for those of African origin.
Why are rates of type 2 diabetes disproportionately higher among Native and Indigenous people or certain ethnic groups?
There is no single reason behind this spike in chronic illness among certain groups, but it is likely a combination of genetic, cultural, socioeconomic, historical, and lifestyle factors.
However, belonging to certain ethnic groups are not the only risk factors that may increase your chance of developing type 2 diabetes .
Half Of Americans Have Diabetes Or A High Risk For It And Many Of Them Are Unaware
Baseball, hot dogs, apple pie and diabetes .
Thats right. The metabolic condition is about as American as you can get, according to a new national report card on diabetes released Tuesday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
The report shows that nearly half of Americans have diabetes or prediabetes, which puts them at high risk for the condition. A good number of these folks havent been diagnosed and dont even realize their predicament.
People with diabetes have too much sugar in their blood. If the disease isnt controlled, they can wind up with heart disease, nerve damage, kidney problems, eye damage and other serious health problems.
The new report combines data from the CDC, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Indian Health Service and the Census Bureau. Heres a numerical look at what they reveal about diabetes in America.
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Type 1 Vs Type 2 Diabetes
Although most available statistics do not differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, according to the CDC, 90-95% of all cases of diabetes are type 2, though many stats state it is closer to 95%.
Type 1 diabetes is much less common than type 2, making up 5% of all cases of diabetes.
Type 1 is sometimes referred to as childhood onset diabetes because it is frequently recognized early on, though it still can develop later in life.
While both types of diabetes involve high blood sugar levels, the origins of the high blood sugar are different.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that attacks the pancreas, causing it to stop producing insulin. Without insulin, sugar from the food you eat cannot get into body cells and be used for energy.
Because of this, type 1 diabetics must take shots of insulin with meals in order to survive.
In type 2 diabetes, the condition results from the bodys ineffective use of insulin, and generally comes down to one of, or a combination of two things insulin resistance or pancreatic function decline.
Insulin resistance is when your bodys cells dont respond to the hormone insulin. Insulin is the key that unlocks cells so that glucose from the bloodstream can enter.
Type 2 diabetes is typically considered to be a lifestyle-related chronic disease, because acquiring an active lifestyle and a healthy diet can increase insulin sensitivity and assist with blood sugar regulation.
What Prediabetes Is And How You Get It
Prediabetes is a condition in which a person’s blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not yet high enough for a type 2 diabetes diagnosis. Doctors often refer to prediabetes as impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose , depending on which test they used to detect the condition. The A1C test is the most commonly used to detect the condition, because it is a blood test that provides information about a person’s average blood glucose levels over the past 90 days. To be prediabetic, an individual would have to have an A1C result of 5.7 percent 6.4 percent. The results of a fasting glucose test that are 100-125mg/dl indicate IFG. If an oral glucose tolerance test is performed and the result is 140-199, it indicates IGT. All are considered prediabetes.
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The CDC, ADA and the American Medical Association have launched a new prediabetes awareness campaign, DoIHavePrediabetes.org. The campaign encourages people to take an online test of seven simple questions that can assess a person’s prediabetes risk. The organizations are also beseeching those at risk to change their eating and exercise habits before their condition worsens.
Todd said the majority of doctors, many of whom are affiliated with hospitals, test for prediabetes often. She thinks the bigger problem is people not going to the doctor rather than doctor’s not offering the tests.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes
Symptoms of Type 2 diabetes tend to develop slowly over time. They can include:
- Urinary tract infections and bladder infections.
Rarely, Type 2 diabetes leads to a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis . DKA is a life-threatening condition that causes your blood to become acidic. People with Type 1 diabetes are more likely to have DKA.
Type 2 Diabetes Statistics
17. Obesity is among the key factors increasing the probability of getting type 2 diabetes.
Old age, a family history of diabetes, and lack of exercise are other key factors affecting a persons chances of developing diabetes. Nevertheless, obesity is one of the leading drivers, further proven by the fact that up to 85.2% of patients with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese.
18. The survival rate of diabetes among type 2 patients becomes significantly worse when cardiovascular disease is in the mix.
A new study has found that with proper control and management of specific risk factors, a diabetes patient can extend their life and improve its overall quality. These five key risk factors are blood pressure, long-term blood glucose, lipid status, renal function, and smoking. By giving up smoking, taking the right medications, and introducing a healthier lifestyle, patients drastically lowered their risk of cardiovascular disease.
19. Between 2002 and 2012, the annual increase rate of type 1 diabetes in people in the US was 1.8%, while for type 2, it was 4.8%.
The US has recorded significantly rising numbers of type 2 diabetes patients, and obesity is one of the main contributors to this result. According to data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey , almost 40% of adults are seriously obese. Whats more, 18.5% of children and adolescents aged 219 are obese.
Source: Medical News Today, The State of Obesity
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What Are The Complications Of Diabetes
If you are living with uncontrolled diabetes, which means your blood glucose levels are outside of the healthy range, then you are at higher risk for some of the more frightening complications of diabetes.
Having chronically high glucose levels can lead to more severe health problems , which may affect your limbs, your internal organs, and even your eyes.
The list below shows some of the possible complications of diabetes and their prevalence among diabetics over the age of 20.
Number Of People With Diabetes Reaches 48 Million
Diabetes is on the rise, with 5.3 million expected to be living with the condition by 2025. Our findings also show that people with type 2 diabetes are 50% more likely to die prematurely.
Diabetes on the rise
3.9 million people are currently living with a diagnosis of diabetes, and 90% of those with type 2. In addition, there are almost a million more people living with type 2 diabetes who dont know they have it because they havent been diagnosed yet, bringing the total number up to more than 4.8 million. Our data shows a stark increase in the number of people living with a diabetes diagnosis in the UK of more than 100,000 from last year. At this rate the number of people with diabetes, including the undiagnosed population, is expected to rise to 5.3 million by 2025.
Complications of diabetes
People with type 2 diabetes are 50% more likely to die prematurely than those without diabetes. A common complication of diabetes that can lead to early death is heart disease. People with type 2 diabetes are also two to two-and-a-half times more likely to experience heart failure and twice more likely to have a heart attack compared to people without diabetes.
Diabetes risk factors
Age, family history, and ethnicity can contribute to someones risk, with people of African-Caribbean, Black African or South Asian descent two to four times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than white people.
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Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes
The classic symptoms of diabetes are the following:
- unusual thirst and
- unexplained weight loss.
In type 1 diabetes, the symptoms usually progress quickly and are often dramatic. In type 2 diabetes, symptoms are slower to progress. However, it is important to note that many people who have type 2 diabetes may have no symptoms. These people may find out they have type 2 diabetes when they go to the doctor for another, unrelated problem.
National Diabetes Statistics Report 2020
Data from this report can guide prevention and management efforts across the nation.
New diabetes cases have decreased over the last decade except in people younger than 20 years. And in adults, there is much room for improvement in preventing diabetes complications. Data from this report can help focus critical type 2 diabetes prevention and diabetes management efforts across the nation.
CDCs Division of Diabetes Translation has released the National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2020 pdf icon, which presents the state of the disease in the United States. The report provides the most recent scientific data on:
- New cases of diabetes
- Existing cases of diabetes
- Short- and long-term health complications
- Risk factors for health complications
- Death rate
The National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2020 pdf icon analyzed health data through 2018, providing statistics across ages, races, ethnicities, education levels, and regions. Data from this report provide vital perspectives on the current status of diabetes and can help focus prevention and management efforts going forward. New in 2020, the report features trends in prevalence and incidence estimates over time.
Key findings include:
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The Numbers Are Staggering
Every 21 seconds another person in the United States is diagnosed with diabetes, according to the ADA. That’s 4,110 people in America diagnosed with the disease every 24 hours. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all those cases. The risk for developing the disease also increases drastically in people age 45 and older, and after age 65 it increases exponentially.
There has also been a troubling rise in the number of adolescents developing both prediabetes and diabetes. Weight has a lot to do with it. Among adolescents, ages 12 to 19, about 1 in 5 are considered to have obesity, and about 1 in 11 are considered to have extreme obesity, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
“Nutrition for adolescents is the cornerstone of treatment,” Cefalu said. “People need access to adequate nutrition, and you have to get that information in their hands.”
Testing for prediabetes in children and adolescents should be considered for those who are overweight or obese, and who have two or more additional risk factors for diabetes, including having a family history of type 2 diabetes, or who are African American, Native American, Latino, or Asian Pacific Islanders. More than half of Asian-Americans and nearly half of Hispanic Americans with diabetes are undiagnosed.
To teach people how to change and maintain a new set of lifestyle habits, the CDC is also promoting its National Diabetes Prevention Program, which was initiated in 2010.
When To See A Healthcare Provider
The symptoms of type 2 diabetes may occur gradually, but they should not be ignored. If you begin to notice any of them, make an appointment with your primary care provider as soon as possible.
If you’re diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, they can connect you with a certified diabetes educator and provide guidance for receiving diabetes self-management education. You also can get this help from the Association of Diabetes Care and Education Specialists. These services often are covered by insurance check your provider for details about your plan.
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Type 2 Diabetes In Children And Teens
Childhood obesity rates are rising, and so are the rates of type 2 diabetes in youth. More than 75% of children with type 2 diabetes have a close relative who has it, too. But its not always because family members are related it can also be because they share certain habits that can increase their risk. Parents can help prevent or delay type 2 diabetes by developing a plan for the whole family:
- Drinking more water and fewer sugary drinks
- Eating more fruits and vegetables
- Making favorite foods healthier
- Making physical activity more fun
Healthy changes become habits more easily when everyone makes them together. Find out how to take charge family style with these healthy tips.
How To Lower Your Risk Of Developing Type 2 Diabetes
Here are some simple ways to reduce your risk of developing diabetes :
- Maintain an active lifestyle aim for 30-60 minutes of physical activity most days of the week.
- Eat a healthy diet that is high in fresh vegetables and low in sugar and processed foods a high fiber, low carb diet, such as the diet we encourage here at DMP, is a great dietary pattern to assist with type 2 diabetes management and prevention.
- Reduce daily stress and find relaxing activities that you enjoy.
- Get adequate sleep and practice self-care in times of stress and illness.
- Spend quality time with friends and family.
- Lose weight if you need to, aiming for a healthy Body Mass Index .
Weight loss is an important factor when it comes to both diabetes treatment and prevention, as research shows a strong link between obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Obesity often kick-starts a cycle of inflammation and metabolic dysfunction, which leads to insulin resistance and, eventually may result in a diabetes diagnosis. So, managing your weight can be an important first step in putting out the fire of systemic inflammation.
Research has also discovered that 85% of children with type 2 diabetes are clinically overweight or obese, so encouraging a healthy lifestyle from a young age may secure a healthier future for your kids.
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