Defects In The Body That Lead To Diabetes
One of the hardest parts of curing diabetes is that diabetes is not just insulin deficiency or insulin resistance. There are 8 well-defined defects in the body that lead to diabetes. Let us briefly talk about these defects as understanding these defects is very helpful in the path to a cure. 1. Defect in the pancreatic beta cells. 2. Defect in the pancreatic alpha cells. 3. Defect in fat cell glucose utilization and resistance to insulin. 4. Defect in the gut hormones. 5. Defect in the kidneys glucose regulation. 6. Defect in the brains regulation of glucose and appetite. 7. Defect in muscle glucose uptake and resistance to insulin. 8. Defect in liver glucose metabolism.
1.Defect in the pancreatic beta cells:
Beta cells are the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Beta cells start to fail due to predetermined genetic weakness but also due to metabolic stress from excessive nutrition, fat cells and inflammation derived from excessive fat accumulation.
2.Defect in pancreatic alpha cells:
3.Defect in fat cell glucose utilization and resistance to insulin:
4.Defect in the gut hormones:
There are gut hormones called incretins. These hormones are the basic communication between the intestinal system and the beta cells in the pancreas. Basically, when you eat, these hormones signal the pancreas to make the insulin. In patients with diabetes, cells producing incretins are also defective. As a result, insulin is not produced enough after consuming a meal.
Exercise And Weight Loss
An active lifestyle can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.
A healthful diet and regular exercise are the first steps to managing type 2 diabetes. Weight loss is the cornerstone of treatment for people with this condition.
A study from 2010 has shown that increased physical activity and modest weight loss can reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes by up to 58 percent.
The article in Diabetes Care stated that people with type 2 diabetes should partake in 150 minutes a week of aerobic activities, including:
- brisk walking
- bicycle riding
Breaking physical activity into five 30-minute sessions throughout the week can help a person manage this amount of exercise. This may be enough to help the body manage diabetes symptoms.
The Revolutionary Stem Therapyin Type 1 Diabetes
2015figures recorded by CDC- Centerfor Disease Control and Prevention stated that at least 30 million US citizenshad been diagnosed with diabetes that year, while 415 million people are saidto suffer from the disease across the globe. Those that required daily insulin treatmentwere about 5 percent. This number continues to rise.
The standard treatmenttoday for type1 diabetesinvolves the monitoring of glucose levels and the injection of insulin to maintainhealthy blood sugar levels. Despite these measures, patients are still facedwith complications such as kidney and nerve problems. Uncontrolled diabetes type 1 can alsobe potentially fatal. When having Type 1 Diabetes, the pancreas make little orno insulin. Insulin is responsible forallowing blood sugar to get into your cells for energy. Without which will cause bloodsugar to build up in the bloodstream.;
A study done by theUniversity of Copenhagen shows that new pancreatic cells used to replace islets can benefit diabetes type 1 sufferers.The study shows how the production of insulin could be increased. Should stem therapy continue tobear fruit, it will offer realistic solutions for type 1 diabetics. Pancreas transplant is asolution that can solve the problem, but it does not come with a 100 percentsuccess rate and normally requires medication that suppresses immunity.;
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What Is Diabetes And Who Should Care
Diabetes is a problem of energy processing. At the root of the problem is insulin, a hormone made in the pancreas, an organ in the abdomen.
Insulin helps the body regulate the amount of glucose in the body. This is how the body knows how much glucose is needed for energy now, and how much needs to be saved for later.
There are four main types of diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes
Other rare types of diabetes
All have a different problem with insulin, but the end result is the same: harmful, high blood glucose levels in the blood.
Both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are chronic conditions. This means that people with diabetes need to live with the condition and usually take medications for the rest of their lives. Diabetes can also cause a myriad of other health problems, so the emotional, physical, and financial costs of living with diabetes really add up.
Type 1 diabetes affects fewer than 5% of people with diabetes. It is usually diagnosed in childhood or the teenage years, and there is nothing you can do to prevent it.
Type 2 diabetes is much more common, affecting about 95% of all people with diabetes. The pancreas often produces enough insulin, but the body doesnt recognize it. Many people with T2D have a family history of diabetes, but with healthy lifestyle changes, the condition can be prevented or slowed down.
Is There A Cure For Type 2 Diabetes
Remission is when blood glucose levels are in a normal range again. This doesnt mean diabetes has gone for good. Its still really important for people in remission to get regular healthcare checks. But being in remission can be life changing.
Our ground-breaking study is called DiRECT, short for Diabetes Remission Clinical Trial, and it could completely change the way type 2 diabetes is treated in the future.
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British Columbia Specific Information
Diabetes is a condition where your body is not able to regulate levels of glucose in your blood. This results in too much or too little sugar in your blood. There are 3 types of diabetes: type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes occurs when your pancreas stops producing insulin. If you have type 1 diabetes, you will need to use an insulin injector to make sure your body gets enough insulin. For more information about type 1 diabetes, visit the Diabetes Canada Living with Type 1 Diabetes web page.
Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body does not respond properly to the insulin it produces. Treatment includes medication and lifestyle changes to your diet and exercise routine. To learn more about how healthy eating can help you manage your blood sugar, see our Healthy Eating Diabetes and Hypoglycemia web page. For more information about diabetes, visit the Diabetes Canada Living with Type 2 Diabetes web page.
Gestational diabetes may occur during pregnancy if your level of blood glucose becomes too high. This may cause problems for you and your baby. Controlling blood sugar levels with treatment and a healthy lifestyle will minimize the risks. To learn more about healthy eating with gestational diabetes, see our Healthy Eating Guidelines for Women with Gestational Diabetes web page. For more information about diabetic screening when pregnant, visit BC Womens Hospital Diabetes and Pregnancy web page.
Lifestyle Risk Factors For Type 2 Diabetes
For the most common type of diabetes, type 2 diabetes, there are a number of risk factors over which you can have some control. These include:
- being overweight or obese, especially around the waist
- low levels of physical activity, including more than two hours of television watching per day
- unhealthy eating habits, such as regularly choosing high-fat, high-sugar, high-salt or low-fibre foods
- cigarette smoking.
People at risk need to have a laboratory blood glucose test performed by their doctor to check if they have diabetes. It is important not to wait for symptoms to develop, as these may not appear until the blood glucose is quite high.
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Here Are Some Ways To Help Manage Your Diabetes:
- Managing your dietMany people think that giving up sweets is all they have to do to manage their sugar levels. But, carbohydrate rich foods like rice and potatoes which form a big part of our diet contain starch which is high in sugar. It is important to see a dietician and work out a diet that will help manage your sugar levels.
- Exercise regularlyPhysical activity, especially aerobic activities like walking and swimming have been found to be helpful in maintaining low sugar levels. They also help in maintaining your weight .
- Managing your medication
Whole Genome Sequencing For Type 1 Diabetes
Using very new genome technologies and cutting edge scientific methods, my team is embarking on a new program with the aim of functionally annotating the gene changes in type 1 diabetes. To start, we have sequenced the entire genomes of 50 individuals with type 1 diabetes.
Already, even at this early stage of this newest program, we have made an exciting discovery. We have shown how single-nucleotide polymorphism changes in one particular gene called A20 not only contributes to diabetes susceptibility, but also enhances rejection in islet transplantation.
This exciting data provides tantalising new information that will help to bring us closer to a better understanding of type 1 diabetes and hopefully, to a cure.
Every day, scientists all around the world are making progress toward a cure for type 1 diabetes. While it is difficult to say how long it will be before a cure is finally realised, we can reflect on how far we have come since the discovery of insulin in the early twentieth century, and look forward to more new and exciting discoveries that will bring us closer to a cure for type 1 diabetes.
The Cure For Diabetes
What if the American Heart Association endorsed the trans-fat diet? Problem, right? Look at what the American Diabetes Association is spoon-feeding people with diabetes: sugar. Not to worry: We’ve got the solution right here
It’s a wonder no one has tried to have Mary Vernon’s medical license revoked.
Since 1999, the 52-year-old family doctor has been treating diabetic patients in Lawrence, Kansas, with an approach that was abandoned by most physicians in the 1930s. Worse, this Depression-era remedy is the opposite of the current guidelines established by the American Diabetes Association, a nonprofit organization that spent nearly $51 million on research in 2005, and so should know a thing or two about how to handle diabetes.
There’s no question that Dr. Vernon is trouble — but for whom? Not her patients, that’s for certain. They just won’t stay sick. People walk into her office afflicted with type-2 diabetes and, by every objective medical measurement, walk out cured. There’s $51 million that says that isn’t supposed to happen, not in a clinic in Kansas, and definitely not as a result of cleaning out the refrigerator.
“My first line of treatment is to have patients remove carbohydrates from their diets,” explains Dr. Vernon, a petite, energetic mother of two who also serves as the president of the American Society of Bariatric Physicians. “This is often all it takes to reverse their symptoms, so that they no longer require medication.”
New Insight On Diabetestype 1
The latest focus forresearchers working with stem cells is diabetestype 1. Stemcell research, a scientific study hasbecome a crucial part of the understanding of type 1 diabetes. The studies reveal that it ispossible to convert stemcells into cells that can produce insulin which could eventually cure diabetes type 1. ;
Researchers areinterested in progenitor cells,which are linked to the stem cells. Unlike stemcells, these do not reproduce indefinitely and tend to mature into alimited range. Because they are always constantly moving, progenitor cells are difficult tostudy. The goal of the stemtherapy research is to find ways of replacing insulin-producing cells in type 1 diabetic patients.
Self-Condensation Cell Culture is theprocess that is used in the first trials to engineer stem cells to cure the disease. Using apatients stem cellswill be more productive because they are a perfect match, instead of dependingon donor cellswhich could be rejected. Notice that stem cells are versatile and can, therefore, take variousforms to be converted into human cells.
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Eat Foods With Low Glycemic
Foods which are high in glycemic cause a fast increase in blood sugar level compared to low glycemic foods . The reason behind this is the foods with high glycemic digested and converted to sugar faster than the low glycemic foods.
Low Glycemic foods include:
Foods rich in magnesium include:
- Nuts and seeds
- Green leafy vegetables like spinach and kale
- Seafood etc
Diabetes And Its Market Potential
Today, 425 million adults live with diabetes, and that number is expected to grow to 629 million by 2045, with the greatest number between the ages of 40 to 59 years old. The global prevalence of diabetes has risen from 4.7;percent in 1980 to 8.5;percent in 2014, with the proportion of type 2 diabetes increasing around the world. On top of those numbers, another whopping 352 million people are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.;According to the 2017 Economic Cost of Diabetes survey sponsored by the;American Diabetes Association, the total cost of diabetes was estimated to be;$327 billion, a 26;percent increase since 2012. About three-quarters of those costs are associated with direct medical expenditures. Patients with diabetes are expected to pay an average of;$9,600;in additional medical costs;annually. A diabetes cure could cut out a nice chunk of;fat out of those costs, potentially worth $245 billion from;the 30 million diabetic Americans alone.
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Take Insulin As Prescribed
People who have type 1 diabetes must take insulin as part of their treatment. Because their bodies can’t make insulin anymore, they need to get the right amount to keep their blood sugar levels in a healthy range.
The only way to get insulin into the body now is by injection with a needle or with an insulin pump. If someone tried to take insulin as a pill, the acids and digestive juices in the stomach and intestines would break down the medicine, and it wouldn’t work.;
Different kinds of insulin are used for different purposes. The types of insulin you use and the number of shots you take each day will depend on what’s best for you and your daily schedule.
As you grow and change, the amount of insulin you will need to take can change. Getting insulin injections today is nearly painless, thanks to smaller needles. Insulin pumps cut down on the number of injections needed.
Your diabetes health care team will teach you how and when to give yourself insulin shots.
Very Low Calorie Diet
Studies have previously researched whether a very low calorie diet could allow people with type 2 diabetes to shed levels of fat in the pancreas and liver.
Consuming 600 calories a day could subsequently reverse, or even eliminate insulin resistance. This study is to be expanded on by Diabetes UK, who are funding a research project to see if a very low calorie liquid diet and assisted weight management can send type 2 diabetes into remission in the long-term.
Many of us are holding out for a cure for diabetes to be announced. There is yet to be a cure for diabetes but research is making gradual progress in certain areas. In this video we will look at some of the avenues which researchers are currently exploring.
Researchers are working on vaccines to prevent someone with type 1 diabetes from losing their insulin producing cells. In type 1 diabetes, the bodys immune system turns on its own insulin producing cells and periodically kills them off. A successful vaccine would prevent this from happening. The vaccine has been successful in rodents but vaccines have yet to demonstrate the same success in human trials.
Islet cell transplants are the perhaps the closest weve come to a cure for type 1 diabetes so far. Islet cell transplants involve injecting insulin producing islet cells into the body. Transplantation has helped people to significantly reduce insulin dosage requirements.
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Islet Cell Encapsulation Therapy
In October 2014, the first person with diabetes was implanted with an islet cell encapsulation system, with insulin-producing cells injected into the body and protected from destruction by the immune system.
Further trials are currently in progress to test its safety among participants with type 1 diabetes, with this treatment set to allow patients to produce their own insulin automatically.
Islet cells are derived from stem cells, the foundation for another advancement made by Harvard University, who have used them to create large quantities of insulin-producing beta cells.
The Harvard team have been able to manufacture the millions of beta cells necessary for human transplantatio, and trials could take place within a matter of years.
In the meantime, the need for patients to take immunosuppressive drugs and insulin is unavoidable, but a cure for type 1 diabetes is more within reach than ever before.
Should ongoing trials prove successful in negating insulin dependence, with no side effects or issues with safety, an end to type 1 diabetes could yet be discovered.
Exercise: Key To Prevention And Treatment Of Diabetes
Research has shown that physical activity combined with modest weight loss can reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes by up to 58 percent.
Physical activity increases energy/glucose use. A structured exercise programs of at least eight weeks has been shown to improve blood sugar control. Exercise also reduces body mass index , improves cardiovascular fitness, enhances muscle strength, and improves insulin sensitivity and mobility.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that adults engage in 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity or 75 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of the two. Additional recommendation: muscle-strengthening activities that involve all major muscle groups two or more days per week.
Always see your doctor when starting a new exercise problem if you have medical problems; he or she will advise you on what is safe and what to avoid. You also will need to drink plenty of water and monitor your blood sugar more closely, as exercise may impact its control.
Sedentary time should also be reduced for people with diabetes: Try some light movements such as standing or walking or even doing chores every 30 minutes or so.
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