Can Type 3 Diabetes Be Cured
Research continues for a cure for type 3 diabetes, but recent years have placed a focus heavily on more effective prevention and risk reduction of the disease.
One of the most effective prevention methods has involved identifying the highest risk factors for type 3 diabetes and working to counteract them.
What Is Type 3 Diabetes
Type 3 diabetes is a condition that is intricately linked with Alzheimers disease , which is the most common form of dementia in the US.
Alzheimers disease is a form of vascular dementia and is so pervasive in todays world that it has become the third leading cause of mortality in both the United States and the United Kingdom.
Dementia is a broad term for multiple neurodegenerative diseases that typically affect older adults, causing cognitive impairment and a steady decline in brain function and mental acuity.
, dementia is arguably the most devastating disease of the 21st century:
- Dementia affects almost 6 million people in the USA alone, which may be an underestimate
- A person is diagnosed with dementia once every 64 seconds
- After the age of 65, 1 in 10 adults has dementia
- After the age of 85, almost 50% of adults have dementia
- One in every 11 men will develop dementia
- One in every 6 women will develop dementia
- This results in almost $340 billion of direct cost and $260 billion in indirect cost each year
- Estimates show this number reaching as high as $3 trillion worldwide by 2050
The cost of dementia absolutely dwarfs other leading causes of mortality in the U.S., including heart disease and cancer .
In this article, we’ll explore the connection between insulin resistance, diabetes, dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease and showcase the research that demonstrates that your brain health is determined mainly by your lifestyle not by your genetics.
Diabetes Is A Complicated Condition Which Can Take Many Different Forms In Addition To The More Common Types Of Diabetes
About 2% of people have these other types of diabetes. These include different types of monogenic diabetes, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, and diabetes caused by rare syndromes. Certain medications such as steroids and antipsychotics could lead to other types of diabetes, as well as surgery or hormonal imbalances. Unfortunately, many of these people are misdiagnosed leading to delays in getting the right treatment.
Were proud of the research we have supported to ensure better diagnosis and treatments for all types of diabetes, and its taught us a lot about the condition. You can find out more information on the different types of diabetes below:
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Symptoms Of Type 3 Diabetes
The symptoms of type 3 diabetes are primarily related to cognitive function, and include:
- Memory loss
- Withdrawal from work or social activities
- Changes in mood or personality
One other early sign of type 3 diabetes is unexplained weight loss, which can occur both due to the same insulin resistance that often accompanies type 3 diabetes as well as behavioral changes.
Alzheimer’s Disease Is Type 3 Diabetes: Evidence From Human Studies
This hypothesis was directly investigated by first examining postmortem cases of advanced AD and determining if the neurodegeneration was associated with significant abnormalities in the expression of genes encoding insulin, IGF-1, and IGF-2 peptides, their receptors, and downstream signaling mechanisms. In that study, we demonstrated advanced AD to be associated with strikingly reduced levels of insulin and IGF-1 polypeptide and receptor genes in the brain . In addition, all the signaling pathways that mediate insulin and IGF-1-stimulated neuronal survival, tau expression, energy metabolism, and mitochondrial function were perturbed in AD. This study carries additional significance because it established that, like all other pancreatic and intestinal polypeptide genes, the insulin gene was also expressed in the adult human brain. Moreover, the results taught us that endogenous brain deficiencies in insulin, IGF-1, IGF-2, and their corresponding receptors, in the absence of T2DM or obesity, could be linked to the most common form of dementia-associated neurodegeneration in the Western hemisphere. Since the abnormalities identified in the brain were quite similar to the effects of T1DM or T2DM , including abnormalities in IGFs, which are important for islet cell function,, we proposed the concept that AD may represent a brain-specific form of diabetes mellitus and coined the term type 3 diabetes.
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Framing And Analysis Of Hypothesis
The complex master network was segregated into nine short interactions to understand the relationship between the queries and their neighboring partners. These interactions were merged keeping insulin as the starting point of the hypothesis which culminates at APP. Interacting neighbor proteins were chosen from the master network and added to the hypothesis in step-wise manner. The final hypothesis was created and explains the events that the system undertakes to shift from insulin resistance to formation of amyloid beta plaques.
These Conditions Involving High Blood Sugar May All Look The Same But Each Kind Of Diabetes Has Its Own Causes And Treatments Discover The Key Differences Among The Most Common Types Of The Disease
by Health Writer
Everyones heard of diabetes. But you may not know that there are several different kinds of the disease, each of which develops based on unique factors. The most common ones are type 1 , type 2, and gestational diabetes. Knowing which type you have is crucial to getting the care you need. Lets take a look at the various forms this disease can take.
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Diagnosis Of Type 3 Diabetes
There is no specific test for type 3 diabetes. Alzheimers disease is diagnosed based on: a neurological examination, medical history, and neurophysiological testing. Your primary care provider will ask several questions about your family history and your symptoms. If he or she thinks that type 3 diabetes may be a possibility, they will refer you to Palmetto Endocrinology and or neurology for further testing.
If you have symptoms of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimers and havent been diagnosed with either one, your healthcare provider may order a fasting blood sugar test and a glycated hemoglobin test.
If you do have type 2 diabetes, it is important that you begin treatment for it immediately. Treating type 2 diabetes could minimize damage to your body, including your brain, and slow the progression of Alzheimers or dementia.
Treating Conditions That Cause Type 3c Diabetes
Many conditions affecting the pancreas can result in digestion issues and put people at risk of malnutrition and raised blood glucose levels after eating . If the pancreas is damaged or not functioning properly, pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy may be required to aid digestion. Good nutrition is required to help gain or maintain weight and to help keep blood sugars stable.
People with pancreatic cancer can find it difficult to eat, digest their food and to maintain their weight. This may make managing blood sugars more difficult. The goal if treating type 3c diabetes in someone with pancreatic cancer is to prevent very high and very low blood glucose levels, stop any further weight loss and avoid longer-term complications of diabetes.
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What Causes Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of factors. Common things that raise your risk include:
Ethnicity/race. Certain ethnic groups are more likely to develop type 2 than others, including African Americans, Hawaiians, Latinos, Native Americans, Native Alaskans, and Pacific Islanders.
Family history and genetics. There is no single type 2 diabetes gene to test for, but if type 2 runs in your family, that means you are at higher risk of developing it, too.
High Body Mass Index . Higher levels of body fat, especially the kind that gathers in the belly, is linked to insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance can also cause more weight gain, creating a frustrating cycle.
Insulin resistance. Type 2 often starts with insulin resistancemeaning that a persons liver, muscles, and other cells start to respond more slowly or weakly to insulin than they used to. Several things can contribute to insulin resistance, including certain medications, polycystic ovary syndrome, Cushings disease, and aging.
Sedentary lifestyle. Physical activity boosts your bodys ability to use insulin efficiently, lowering the risk of high blood sugar. Being sedentary makes your cells less sensitive to insulin, which leads to insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
Sometimes, type 2 diabetes is caused by an underactive pancreas and your body doesnt make enough insulin.
Maturity Onset Diabetes Of The Young
MODY is a rare form of diabetes which is different from both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and runs strongly in families. MODY is caused by a mutation in a single gene. If a parent has this gene mutation, any child they have, has a 50 per cent chance of inheriting it from them. If a child does inherit the mutation they will generally go on to develop MODY before theyre 25, whatever their weight, lifestyle, ethnic group etc.
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Treatment For Type 2 Diabetes
Every persons type 2 diabetes treatment plan is unique, based on their blood sugar patterns, medical history, lifestyle, and personal preferences. The main components for managing type 2 diabetes include:
Eating thoughtfully. Theres no one best diabetes diet everyone should follow, but plant-based meals, a Mediterranean diet rich in vegetables and seafood, and low-carbohydrate plans have all been shown to decrease blood sugar and reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. A registered dietitian or certified diabetes educator can help you find an eating pattern works best for your body, budget, and lifestyle.
Exercising. Physical activity makes your cells more sensitive to insulin. You dont need to sweat for hours to improve your blood sugar and help manage type 2 diabeteseven a daily walk around the block can help.
Medication. Some people with type 2 diabetes can manage their illness through diet and exercise. But many need medication, too. There are a lot of different drugs that help lower blood sugaryour doctor might recommend one, or a combination, based on your particular case.
Why Is Alzheimers Disease Being Called Type 3 Diabetes
Its really more of a research term, rather than a medical term, says Guojun Bu, PhD, a professor of neuroscience and associate director of the Center for Regenerative Medicine at the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida. Its a way to identify the growing body of research into the relationships between insulin resistance in the brain and neurodegenerative conditions that can result in cognitive decline, Alzheimers disease, or other types of dementia.
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How Type 3 Diabetes Occurs
Over time, a brain that is constantly adjusting to suboptimal nutrition and impaired blood flow will accumulate slow and steady damage.
Your brain is very adaptable, so typically a condition like dementia doesnt manifest when youre young, and becomes more apparent as you age.
However, over the course of a lifetime, these risk factors can each contribute to cognitive decline and increase your risk for type 3 diabetes:
- Chronic insulin resistance
- An insufficient supply of high-quality nutrients found in fruit and vegetables
- Chronic stress maintained over many years
- A sedentary lifestyle
- Frequent drug and/or alcohol use
Once type 3 diabetes takes hold, this long term damage can increase, causing a wide variety of cognitive impairments like memory loss, cognitive decline, and more.
Type 3 diabetes is different from other forms of dementia like vascular dementia based on the rate of loss of cognitive function.
Vascular dementia is often caused by a stroke or other traumatic event, and results in an immediate decline in cognitive function, followed by a plateau. Type 3 diabetes manifests as a slow and steady decline in cognitive function.
Type 3 Diabetes Prevention
Currently, theres no way to reverse type 3 diabetes. However, as mentioned above, less than 3% of all type 3 diabetes cases are genetically determined.
The remaining 97% of cases can be affected by your lifestyle. The same risk factors above, when controlled, can drastically decrease your chance of developing type 3 diabetes, or at the very least delay its onset.
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You May Have Heard Of The More Common Types Of Diabetes Like Type 1 Type 2 And Gestational But There Are Actually Many Other Types Of Diabetes That Aren’t As Well Known
Type 3c diabetes develops because of damage to the pancreas, which can happen for a few different reasons. And although its different to other types, you can get a wrong diagnosis of type 2 because type 3c isnt well known.
Not getting the right diagnosis can be really difficult to deal with emotionally. You might feel angry at not getting the right treatment or you could just get worn out by the whole process. So make sure you find someone to talk to. Our forum has a lot of threads about type 3c from people who’ve experienced similar things to you. Being part of a community like that can help get you through difficult times.
You can also speak to our helpline to get support. Call or use the live chat.
Is There A Type 3 Diabetes
This article was written by guest blogger Jessica Frisch-Daiello, Ph.D.
People with type 2 diabetes are twice as likely to develop Alzheimers diseasea type of dementia affecting behavior, memory, and cognitive functions. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2013 Alzheimers ranked sixth and diabetes was seventh as the leading causes of death in the United States. Recent studies are suggesting a link between insulin resistance in the brain and Alzheimers disease, prompting some researchers to consider a new classification for the disease: type 3 diabetes.
People with diabetes cant effectively break down blood sugar. Either their bodies dont produce enough insulin or their bodies become desensitized to insulin .
The exact mechanisms between insulin resistance and Alzheimers disease are not well understood and research is on-going. However, studies suggest that insulin resistance in the brain leads to the formation of two pathological hallmarks of Alzheimers diseasethe formation of tau tangles and the build-up of clusters of beta amyloid peptides called plaques in the brain. The degree of insulin resistance is correlated with the amount of plaques deposited between nerve cells. Plaques create a blockade that inhibits cell-to-cell signaling in the brain. Additionally, insulin dysfunction has also been shown to affect the formation of tau tangles by mediating the activity of an important enzyme in the body, GSK-3 .
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Maintaining Brain Health And Prevention
Some cognitive decline is a natural part of the aging process, but whats important to note is that this natural age-associated decline appears to be fueled and encouraged by underlying insulin-resistance and metabolic imbalanceseven in individuals who arent yet showing signs of T2DM or insulin-resistance.
Also, insulin-resistance may occur in the brain with or without signs of prediabetes or T2DM. All of this suggests that adopting healthy lifestyle habits to maintain good blood glucose management in early adulthood is key. Here are eight key areas to focus on now.
1. Monitor Overall Carb Intake: Our food system today makes it easy to consume more carbohydrates, so keep tabs on that intake to ensure its balanced with high-quality fats and lean proteins. While this doesnt necessarily mean eating a low-carb diet, some preliminary research does suggest that reducing carbohydrates could play a role in maintaining brain health and even possibly slowing AD progression.
2. Be Picky About Carbs: Choose high-quality, less processed carbs like beans, legumes, vegetables, whole grains, and fruits. These foods usually have more nutrients, including fiber which helps with blood glucose regulation.
5. Work Towards a Healthy Body Weight:Studies have suggested that middle-aged individuals with a BMI > 30 have increased risks for both dementia and AD. Working towards a healthy body weight now is key to decreasing risk of insulin-resistance today and down the road.
When To See A Doctor
Visit your GP as soon as possible if you experience the main symptoms of diabetes, which include:
- weight loss and loss of muscle bulk
- itching around the penis or vagina, or frequent episodes of thrush
- cuts or wounds that heal slowly
- blurred vision
Type 1 diabetes can develop quickly over weeks or even days.
Many people have type 2 diabetes for years without realising because the early symptoms tend to be general.
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What Is Type 3c Diabetes
Type 3c Diabetes can develop when the pancreas stops producing enough of the hormone called insulin. This can happen due to an illness or condition that affects or damages the pancreas. It can also occur if you have had surgery on your pancreas or if it is removed completely. When there isnt enough insulin in the body the blood glucose levels begin to rise above the normal level and if left untreated this can lead to complications.
Approximately 9% of all diabetes cases are type 3c but the condition is under diagnosed. There is a lack of awareness amongst the general public and some health care professionals.
The main causes of type 3c diabetes are shown in the graph below. It is important to remember not everyone with chronic pancreatitis or the other conditions here will develop type 3c diabetes and the severity of the condition will depend on the damage caused to the pancreas, the amount of the pancreas removed during surgery and the health of any remaining organ.