Risk Factors Contributing To Type 2 Diabetes And Recent Advances In The Treatment And Prevention
Yanling Wu1,2 , Yanping Ding1,2, Yoshimasa Tanaka3, Wen Zhang2
1. Lab of Molecular Immunology, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 3399 Binsheng Road, Hangzhou, 310051, China 2. Lab of Chemical Biology and Molecular Drug Design, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, 18 Chaowang Road, Hangzhou, 310014, China 3. Center for Innovation in Immunoregulative Technology and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan.
Citation:Int J Med Sci
Statistically Significant Associations Heterogeneity And Biases
One hundred and sixteen of 142 associations presented a statistically significant effect at P < 0.05 under the random-effects model, whereas 46 associations had a statistically significant effect at P < 106 . displays the distribution of the P-values in each category of associations. Only 33 of 142 associations had a 95% PI that excluded the null value and 26 of these also had a P < 106.
Manhattan plot for 142 associations between risk factors and T2DM.
The horizontal line corresponds to the significance threshold of P < 106.
How Do I Avoid Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors And Prevent It
You should always aim to maintain a healthy lifestyle to manage your type 2 diabetes risk factors.
Its important to make changes which are realistic and work for you. You can start by making one change at a time and making it part of your everyday routine. Changes you can make include:
- Eating a healthy, balanced diet that keeps salt, fat and sugar to a minimum
- Losing weight aim to do this slowly with a loss of 0.5 to 1 kg a week
- Exercising regularly aim for at least 2.5 hours of physical activity a week
- Stopping smoking diabetes worsens the effects of smoking on your heart
- Cutting down the amount of alcohol you drink
- Improving your sleep hygiene having a regular sleep pattern and getting enough sleep can help
Theres nothing you cant eat if youre prediabetic or have risk factors for type 2 diabetes, but you should aim to have a healthy balanced diet. Make sure you eat a wide range of foods, including fruits and vegetables, wholegrain carbohydrates, low fat dairy products and oily fish. Try to reduce the amount of fatty foods that youre eating. Dont skip meals, and make sure you have breakfast, lunch, and dinner at regular times. There are programmes that your GP might be able to refer you to, which involve spending some time with a dietician for advice about how you can improve your diet.
If youre not sure how often to check your risk of type 2 diabetes, ask your doctor.
Read Also: Sudden Insulin Resistance Type 1 Diabetes
What Is Continuous Glucose Monitoring
Advancements in technology have given us another way to monitor glucose levels. Continuous glucose monitoring uses a tiny sensor inserted under your skin. You don’t need to prick your finger. Instead, the sensor measures your glucose and can display results anytime during the day or night. Ask your healthcare provider about continuous glucose monitors to see if this is an option for you.
Does Eating Sugary Foods Cause Diabetes
Sugar itself doesn’t directly cause diabetes. Eating foods high in sugar content can lead to weight gain, which is a risk factor for developing diabetes. Eating more sugar than recommended American Heart Association recommends no more than six teaspoons a day for women and nine teaspoons for men leads to all kinds of health harms in addition to weight gain.
These health harms are all risk factors for the development of diabetes or can worsen complications. Weight gain can:
- Raise blood pressure, cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
- Increase your risk of cardiovascular disease.
- Cause fat buildup in your liver.
- Cause tooth decay.
Read Also: What Kind Of Candy Can Diabetics Eat
Data Sources And Participant Selection
We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 20072012 , a continuous, cross-sectional survey of the noninstitutionalized, civilian U.S. population with data released in 2-year cycles. Response rates for 20072012 cycles ranged from 70 to 77%. Detailed descriptions of NHANES sampling methods are provided elsewhere . Using the morning examination sample, we restricted our sample to nonpregnant, nonlactating individuals aged 20 years without diabetes and who provided two nonconsecutive days of reliable dietary data . These restrictions yielded a final analytic sample of 3,679 adults representing 48 million individuals .
Are You Eligible For An Nhs Health Check
Whether you have any other risk factors or not, if youre over 40 your risk of type 2 diabetes and other conditions is higher. If you’re aged 40 to 74 and living in England you may be eligible for a free NHS Health Check.
It’s a great way to check your health and get personalised advice on keeping yourself healthy and active.
Find out more about the health check on the NHS website, or talk to your GP for more information.
Read Also: Low Blood Pressure And Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors: Are You At Risk
Type 2 diabetes is associated with several other metabolic abnormalities, such as central obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, which contributes to the very high rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
The primary pathologic defects in diabetes include:
- Excessive hepatic glucose production
- Peripheral insulin resistance
- Defective beta-cell secretory function
According to the International Diabetes Federation, over 400 million people were living with diabetes as of 2015.
There are three major types of diabetes:
- Gestational diabetes
Of the three, type 2 is the most common.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 90% of people around the world diagnosed with diabetes have type 2 diabetes.
In this condition, the pancreas makes insulin, but the cells are not able to use the insulin as well as they should. This is what experts call insulin resistance.
Initially, the pancreas makes more insulin to try to move glucose into the cells. But eventually, it fails to keep up and the sugar builds up in the bloodstream, leading to a high blood sugar level.
A number of people with type 2 diabetes are not even aware they have the disease, and this can contribute to various health complications associated with it. According to the American Diabetes Association, 4 out of 10 at-risk adults believe that they have no risk for diabetes.
This makes it even more important to know the risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes.
Common Risk Factors That Increase The Risk Of Cancer
The fact that both type 2 diabetes and cancer are increasingly prevalent with age and obesity complicates determining a cause-and-effect link. Obesity raises the risk of some cancers, such as endometrial cancer, breast cancer, kidney cancer, colorectal cancer, and pancreas cancer, as well as the risk of dying from cancer. As a result, it has been hypothesised that metabolic dysfunctional alterations linked with obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia, and also hyperglycemia have a role in cancer connected to type 2 diabetes, at least in part. Type 1 diabetes increases the risk of cancer, although the cancer types differ from type 2 diabetes in that the stomach, cervix, and endometrium are the most common sites. These factors can impact the overall incidence of specific cancers in diabetic individuals.
Recommended Reading: Metformin Dose For Diabetes
A Lack Of Physical Activity
In combination with a balanced diet, exercise is one of the first symptom management strategies doctors recommend for people who live with prediabetes or have recently received a type 2 diabetes diagnosis.
Can Diabetes Cause Headaches Or Dizziness
Yes, its possible to develop headaches or dizziness if your blood glucose level is too low usually below 70 mg/dL. This condition is called hypoglycemia. You can read about the other symptoms hypoglycemia causes in this article.Hypoglycemia is common in people with Type 1 diabetes and can happen in some people with Type 2 diabetes who take insulin or medications such as sulfonylureas.
Don’t Miss: What Is The Maximum Dosage Of Metformin
Can Diabetes Kill You
Yes, its possible that if diabetes remains undiagnosed and uncontrolled it can cause devastating harm to your body. Diabetes can cause heart attack, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure and coma. These complications can lead to your death. Cardiovascular disease in particular is the leading cause of death in adults with diabetes.
Are There Other Treatment Options For Diabetes
Yes. There are two types of transplantations that might be an option for a select number of patients who have Type 1 diabetes. A pancreas transplant is possible. However, getting an organ transplant requires taking immune-suppressing drugs for the rest of your life and dealing with the side effects of these drugs. However, if the transplant is successful, youll likely be able to stop taking insulin.
Another type of transplant is a pancreatic islet transplant. In this transplant, clusters of islet cells are transplanted from an organ donor into your pancreas to replace those that have been destroyed.
Another treatment under research for Type 1 diabetes is immunotherapy. Since Type 1 is an immune system disease, immunotherapy holds promise as a way to use medication to turn off the parts of the immune system that cause Type 1 disease.
Bariatric surgery is another treatment option thats an indirect treatment for diabetes. Bariatric surgery is an option if you have Type 2 diabetes, are obese and considered a good candidate for this type of surgery. Much improved blood glucose levels are seen in people who have lost a significant amount of weight.
Of course other medications are prescribed to treat any existing health problems that contribute to increasing your risk of developing diabetes. These conditions include high blood pressure, high cholesterol and other heart-related diseases.
Also Check: Metformin Interactions With Other Drugs
What Are The Major Risk Factors For Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
The major risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus are the following:
Age greater than 45 years
Weight greater than 120% of desirable body weight
Family history of type 2 diabetes in a first-degree relative
Hispanic, Native American, African American, Asian American, or Pacific Islander descent
History of previous impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose
Hypertension or dyslipidemia
History of gestational diabetes mellitus or of delivering a baby with a birth weight of over 9 lb
Polycystic ovarian syndrome
Variables Measuring Type 2 Diabetes Risk Reduction Goals
We defined type 2 diabetes risk reduction lifestyle goals as meeting dietary, physical activity, and weight loss/maintenance recommendations . We used dietary guidelines that participants in the lifestyle arm of the U.S. Diabetes Prevention Program were encouraged to follow in order to reduce calorie and fat consumption . These guidelines aligned well with the 2010 U.S. Department of Agricultures MyPlate guidelines , which recommend adequate consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy, grains , meat, beans, and eggs and limited intake of oils, saturated fat, salt, and added sugar, and the National Cholesterol Education Program Step 1 diet , which advocates limited intake of saturated fat, total fat, and total cholesterol. Because similar recommendations for saturated fat intake were included in MyPlate and NCEP , we used the MyPlate recommendation of 10% of total calories from saturated fat for our analysis.
Recognizing Your Risk Factors Of Type 2 Diabetes
Article at a Glance
- Risk factors of type 2 diabetes include weight, inactivity, poor nutritional habits, poor lipid metabolism, genetic factors and age.
- Exercise and nutrition are two of the main factors for controlling type 2 diabetes.
- You can manage type 2 diabetes with your Cenegenics physician, and if you are prediabetic, Cenegenics can help reduce the risk of progressing to type 2 diabetes through custom-tailored programs that help combat disease.
Previously, we discussed the factors that comprise metabolic syndrome and place individuals at a greater risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Nonetheless, conditions encompassed by metabolic syndrome are not the only factors that determine a persons risk for type 2 diabetes. Frustratingly, some individuals seem inherently more inclined to develop the disease than others. While researchers still do not understand the precise interplay among risk factors, it is clear that certain criteria do increase risk.
Race Or Ethnic Background
Aside from family history, people belonging to certain races or ethnicities are more prone to developing type 2 diabetes. Hispanics, African-Americans, Hawaiians, Native Americans, and Asians are at an increased risk of developing this condition.
A 2016 study published in Diabetes Care, reports that the risk of diabetes is significantly higher among Asians, Hispanics, and blacks than among whites, before and after taking into account differences in body mass index.
So, if you are African-American, Asian, Latino/Hispanic, Native American, or Pacific Islander descent, consider making necessary lifestyle changes in order to reduce the risk.
Don’t Miss: Does Metformin Increase Insulin Secretion
Lifestyle Intervention For Prevention Of T2dm
Physical activity interventions. Nowadays, physical inactivity has been considered as one of the biggest public health problems worldwide . It is demonstrated that physical activity may contribute to 30-50% reduction in the development of T2DM . Physical activity interventions can improve glucose tolerance and reduce the risk of T2DM , because it simply help achieve weight loss . Any types of physical activity should be acceptable to the majority of the population. For example, walking, the most popular choice of physical activity, has been shown to reduce the relative risk of T2DM by 60% when walk for 150 min/week, compared to walking for < 60 min/week . It is widely advocated to keep a daily step, which is an effective self-regulatory strategy to successfully promote increased physical activity. For people who have difficulty in walking because of joint problems, other forms of physical activity, for example, cycling, swimming or gym-based activities, should be encouraged.
Even though diet is quite variable owing to food availability, personal preferences and different cultures, a general rule can be derived: a high intake of vegetables, fruits and fat from vegetables with low saturated fat content should be preferred nuts, legumes, dairy and fish should be taken as supplement for enough body protein grain products unrefined and with high natural fiber content should be mainly chosen red meat and highly processed foods should be limited .
Eating A Western Diet
Eating unhealthily is a major cause of type 2 diabetes, as over 90 per cent of type 2 diabetics are overweight.
A so called Western diet, with a reliance on processed foods, poor quality fats and little fibre content, is thought to be a major contributor to diabetes and metabolic syndrome
Eating well, in conjunction with exercise, can prevent or reverse the development of type 2 diabetes.
Picking a healthy diet can sometimes be confusing, with so many mixed messages, and its often not helped by so-called diabetic food which are not necessarily a healthier option.
Don’t Miss: Can Metformin Cause Low Blood Sugar
Type 2 Diabetes Treatment
To get a diagnosis, a healthcare pro will use various tests that involve taking a sample of your blood to see how high your blood sugar is. It may take a few visits to gather enough data.
Depending on the individual and the severity of type 2 diabetes, treatment may require monitoring blood sugar levels and taking oral medication or injectable insulin. Taking anoral med may help your body lower blood glucose levels and use insulin more effectively.
Its also possible not to need medication at all, or to get off medication. Some folks can manage diabetes by staying active and eating a nutritious diet to help manage their blood sugar.
What Types Of Healthcare Professionals Might Be Part Of My Diabetes Treatment Team
Most people with diabetes see their primary healthcare provider first. Your provider might refer you to an endocrinologist/pediatric endocrinologist, a physician who specializes in diabetes care. Other members of your healthcare team may include an ophthalmologist , nephrologist , cardiologist , podiatrist , neurologist , gastroenterologist , registered dietician, nurse practitioners/physician assistants, diabetes educator, pharmacist, personal trainer, social worker, mental health professional, transplant team and others.
Don’t Miss: Can’t Get Blood Sugar Down Type 1
Risk Factors Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma In Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Two
Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Software, Validation, Visualization, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing
Affiliation Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Supervision, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing
Affiliation Faculty of Information Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
- Leow Voon Meng,
Roles Data curation, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Writing review & editing
Affiliations Advanced Medical and Dental Institute , USM, Kepala Batas, Penang, Malaysia, Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Unit, Department of Surgery, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia
Roles Data curation, Resources, Writing review & editing
Affiliation Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Unit, Department of Surgery, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia
Roles Data curation, Resources, Writing review & editing
Affiliation Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Unit, Department of Surgery, Hospital Selayang, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Batu Caves, Selangor, Malaysia
When Should I Call My Doctor
If you havent been diagnosed with diabetes, you should see your healthcare provider if you have any symptoms of diabetes. If you already have been diagnosed with diabetes, you should contact your provider if your blood glucose levels are outside of your target range, if current symptoms worsen or if you develop any new symptoms.
Also Check: Why Is Metformin Dangerous