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What Is The Definition Of Diabetes


What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What is Diabetes Mellitus?

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening condition. It happens when your liver breaks down fat to use as energy because theres not enough insulin and therefore glucose isnt being used as an energy source. Fat is broken down by the liver into a fuel called ketones. The formation and use of ketones is a normal process if it has been a long time since your last meal and your body needs fuel. Ketones are a problem when your fat is broken down too fast for your body to process and they build up in your blood. This makes your blood acidic, which is a condition called ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis can be the result of uncontrolled Type 1 diabetes and less commonly, Type 2 diabetes.Diabetic ketoacidosis is diagnosed by the presence of ketones in your urine or blood and a basic metabolic panel. The condition develops over several hours and can cause coma and possibly even death.

Diabetes: Definition Prevention And Warning Signs

The topic of diabetes becoming a serious concern in the U.S. is nothing new. Most people understand unhealthy lifestyle choices, such as lack of physical activity and a diet high in saturated fat and sugar, put you at risk for diabetes and other health conditions. But what people may not know is the hard data is staggering. According to the Centers for Disease Control, 30.3 million people had diabetes in 2015 9.4 percent of the U.S. population.

Approximately 84 million American adults more than one out of three have prediabetes, a health condition for which blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not high enough yet to be diagnosed as Type 2 diabetes. Of those with prediabetes, 90 percent dont know they have it. Prediabetes puts you are increased risk for developing Type 2 diabetes.

The good news is that Type 2 diabetes, which accounts for the vast majority of diagnosed diabetes cases, can be delayed or even prevented. And if youve already been diagnosed, you may be able to manage the condition with a healthy lifestyle and without medication. On the other hand, Type 1 diabetes is not preventable and may be linked to genetic causes.


WHAT IS DIABETES?

Mayo Clinic defines diabetes mellitus as a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar . Having diabetes, whether its Type 1 or 2, gestational or prediabetes, means you have too much glucose in your blood.

HOW CAN I PREVENT OR MANAGE DIABETES?

WHAT ARE THE WARNING SIGNS?

  • Increased thirst

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

The OGTT is a two-hour test that checks your blood sugar levels before and two hours after you drink a special sweet drink. It tells the doctor how your body processes sugar.

  • Diabetes is diagnosed at 2 hour blood sugar of greater than or equal to 200 mg/dl

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

Normal
140 mg/dl to 199 mg/dl
Diabetes 200 mg/dl or higher

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Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus And Other Categories Of Glucose Regulation

Assigning a type of diabetes to an individual often depends on the circumstances present at the time of diagnosis, and many diabetic individuals do not easily fit into a single class. For example, a person with gestational diabetes mellitus may continue to be hyperglycemic after delivery and may be determined to have, in fact, type 2 diabetes. Alternatively, a person who acquires diabetes because of large doses of exogenous steroids may become normoglycemic once the glucocorticoids are discontinued, but then may develop diabetes many years later after recurrent episodes of pancreatitis. Another example would be a person treated with thiazides who develops diabetes years later. Because thiazides in themselves seldom cause severe hyperglycemia, such individuals probably have type 2 diabetes that is exacerbated by the drug. Thus, for the clinician and patient, it is less important to label the particular type of diabetes than it is to understand the pathogenesis of the hyperglycemia and to treat it effectively.


Testing For Type 1 Diabetes

Define Diabetes

A simple blood test will let you know if you have diabetes. If youve gotten your blood sugar tested at a health fair or pharmacy, follow up at a clinic or doctors office to make sure the results are accurate.

If your doctor thinks you have type 1 diabetes, your blood may also be tested for autoantibodies that are often present with type 1 diabetes but not with type 2. You may have your urine tested for ketones , which also indicate type 1 diabetes instead of type 2.

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How Is Diabetes Managed

Diabetes affects your whole body. To best manage diabetes, youll need to take steps to keep your risk factors under control and within the normal range, including:

  • Keep your blood glucose levels as near to normal as possible by following a diet plan, taking prescribed medication and increasing your activity level.
  • Maintain your blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels as near the normal ranges as possible.
  • Control your blood pressure. Your blood pressure should not be over 140/90 mmHg.

You hold the keys to managing your diabetes by:


  • Planning what you eat and following a healthy meal plan. Follow a Mediterranean diet or Dash diet. These diets are high in nutrition and fiber and low in fats and calories. See a registered dietitian for help understanding nutrition and meal planning.
  • Exercising regularly. Try to exercise at least 30 minutes most days of the week. Walk, swim or find some activity you enjoy.
  • Losing weight if you are overweight. Work with your healthcare team to develop a weight-loss plan.
  • Taking medication and insulin, if prescribed, and closely following recommendations on how and when to take it.
  • Quitting smoking .

You have a lot of control on a day-to-day basis in managing your diabetes!

What Is Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy. Diabetes means your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Too much glucose in your blood is not good for you or your baby.

Gestational diabetes is usually diagnosed in the 24th to 28th week of pregnancy. Managing your gestational diabetes can help you and your baby stay healthy. You can protect your own and your babys health by taking action right away to manage your blood glucose levels.

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Definition And Description Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels.


Several pathogenic processes are involved in the development of diabetes. These range from autoimmune destruction of the -cells of the pancreas with consequent insulin deficiency to abnormalities that result in resistance to insulin action. The basis of the abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in diabetes is deficient action of insulin on target tissues. Deficient insulin action results from inadequate insulin secretion and/or diminished tissue responses to insulin at one or more points in the complex pathways of hormone action. Impairment of insulin secretion and defects in insulin action frequently coexist in the same patient, and it is often unclear which abnormality, if either alone, is the primary cause of the hyperglycemia.

Symptoms of marked hyperglycemia include polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, sometimes with polyphagia, and blurred vision. Impairment of growth and susceptibility to certain infections may also accompany chronic hyperglycemia. Acute, life-threatening consequences of uncontrolled diabetes are hyperglycemia with ketoacidosis or the nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome.

What Types Of Diabetes Require Insulin

What is diabetes mellitus? | Endocrine system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

People with Type 1 diabetes need insulin to live. If you have Type 1 diabetes, your body has attacked your pancreas, destroying the cells that make insulin. If you have Type 2 diabetes, your pancreas makes insulin, but it doesnt work as it should. In some people with Type 2 diabetes, insulin may be needed to help glucose move from your bloodstream to your bodys cells where its needed for energy. You may or may not need insulin if you have gestational diabetes. If you are pregnant or have Type 2 diabetes, your healthcare provider will check your blood glucose level, assess other risk factors and determine a treatment approach which may include a combination of lifestyle changes, oral medications and insulin. Each person is unique and so is your treatment plan.

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Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

If you have prediabetes, losing a small amount of weight if youre overweight and getting regular physical activity can lower your risk for developing type 2 diabetes. A small amount of weight loss means around 5% to 7% of your body weight, just 10 to 14 pounds for a 200-pound person. Regular physical activity means getting at least 150 minutes a week of brisk walking or a similar activity. Thats just 30 minutes a day, five days a week.


Imagine: You and the National Diabetes Prevention Program. Watch the video!

A lifestyle change program offered through the CDC-led National Diabetes Prevention Program can help you make those changesand make them stick. Through the program, you can lower your risk of developing type 2 diabetes by as much as 58% . Highlights include:

  • Working with a trained coach to make realistic, lasting lifestyle changes.
  • Discovering how to eat healthy and add more physical activity into your day.
  • Finding out how to manage stress, stay motivated, and solve problems that can slow your progress.
  • Getting support from people with similar goals and challenges.

Ask your doctor or nurse if theres a CDC-recognized National Diabetes Prevention Program offered in your community or find one here. The best time to prevent type 2 diabetes is now.

Can Diabetes Be Cured Or Reversed

Although these seem like simple questions, the answers are not so simple. Depending on the type of your diabetes and its specific cause, it may or may not be possible to reverse your diabetes. Successfully reversing diabetes is more commonly called achieving remission.

Type 1 diabetes is an immune system disease with some genetic component. This type of diabetes cant be reversed with traditional treatments. You need lifelong insulin to survive. Providing insulin through an artificial pancreas is the most advanced way of keeping glucose within a tight range at all times most closely mimicking the body. The closest thing toward a cure for Type 1 is a pancreas transplant or a pancreas islet transplant. Transplant candidates must meet strict criteria to be eligible. Its not an option for everyone and it requires taking immunosuppressant medications for life and dealing with the side effects of these drugs.


Its possible to reverse prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes with a lot of effort and motivation. Youd have to reverse all your risk factors for disease. To do this means a combination of losing weight, exercising regularly and eating healthy . These efforts should also lower your cholesterol numbers and blood pressure to within their normal range. Bariatric surgery has been shown to achieve remission in some people with Type 2 diabetes. This is a significant surgery that has its own risks and complications.

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Why Is My Blood Glucose Level High How Does This Happen

The process of digestion includes breaking down the food you eat into various different nutrient sources. When you eat carbohydrates , your body breaks this down into sugar . When glucose is in your bloodstream, it needs help a “key” to get into its final destination where it’s used, which is inside your body’s cells . This help or “key” is insulin.

Insulin is a hormone made by your pancreas, an organ located behind your stomach. Your pancreas releases insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin acts as the key that unlocks the cell wall door, which allows glucose to enter your bodys cells. Glucose provides the fuel or energy tissues and organs need to properly function.

If you have diabetes:


  • Your pancreas doesnt make any insulin or enough insulin.
  • Your pancreas makes insulin but your bodys cells dont respond to it and cant use it as it normally should.

If glucose cant get into your bodys cells, it stays in your bloodstream and your blood glucose level rises.

Can Diabetes Cause Hair Loss

What is Diabetes: Define, Symptoms, Causes &  Types

Yes, its possible for diabetes to cause hair loss. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to persistently high blood glucose levels. This, in turn, leads to blood vessel damage and restricted flow, and oxygen and nutrients cant get to the cells that need it including hair follicles. Stress can cause hormone level changes that affect hair growth. If you have Type 1 diabetes, your immune system attacks itself and can also cause a hair loss condition called alopecia areata.

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Informacin Sobre La Diabetes

La diabetes es una enfermedad crónica que afecta la forma en que el cuerpo convierte los alimentos en energía.

La mayoría de los alimentos que come se convierten en azúcar que se libera en el torrente sanguíneo. El páncreas produce una hormona llamada insulina, que actúa como una llave que permite que el azúcar en la sangre entre a las células del cuerpo para que estas la usen como energía.


Si una persona tiene diabetes, su cuerpo no produce una cantidad suficiente de insulina o no puede usar adecuadamente la insulina que produce. Cuando no hay suficiente insulina o las células dejan de responder a la insulina, queda demasiada azúcar en el torrente sanguíneo y, con el tiempo, esto puede causar problemas de salud graves, como enfermedad del corazón, pérdida de la visión y enfermedad de los riñones.

Todavía no existe una cura para la diabetes, pero se puede reducir mucho el efecto que tiene sobre la vida si se practican hábitos de estilo de vida saludables, se toman los medicamentos según sea necesario, se obtiene información sobre el automanejo de la diabetes y no se falta a las citas con el equipo de atención médica.

What Types Of Healthcare Professionals Might Be Part Of My Diabetes Treatment Team

Most people with diabetes see their primary healthcare provider first. Your provider might refer you to an endocrinologist/pediatric endocrinologist, a physician who specializes in diabetes care. Other members of your healthcare team may include an ophthalmologist , nephrologist , cardiologist , podiatrist , neurologist , gastroenterologist , registered dietician, nurse practitioners/physician assistants, diabetes educator, pharmacist, personal trainer, social worker, mental health professional, transplant team and others.

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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1 diabetes, accounting for about 90 percent of all cases. The frequency of type 2 diabetes varies greatly within and between countries and is increasing throughout the world. Most patients with type 2 diabetes are adults, often older adults, but it can also occur in children and adolescents. There is a stronger genetic component to type 2 diabetes than to type 1 diabetes. For example, identical twins are much more likely to both develop type 2 diabetes than to both develop type 1 diabetes, and 7 to 14 percent of people whose mother or father has type 2 diabetes will also develop type 2 diabetes this estimate increases to 45 percent if both parents are affected. In addition, it is estimated that about half of the adult Pima Indian population in Arizona has type 2 diabetes, whereas in the entire United States it is estimated that about 10 percent of the population has type 2 diabetes.


Many patients with type 2 diabetes are asymptomatic, and they are often diagnosed with type 2 diabetes when routine measurements reveal high blood glucose concentrations. In some patients the presence of one or more symptoms associated with the long-term complications of diabetes leads to a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Other patients present with symptoms of hyperglycemia that have been present for months or with the sudden onset of symptoms of very severe hyperglycemia and vascular collapse.

Does Eating Sugary Foods Cause Diabetes

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Sugar itself doesn’t directly cause diabetes. Eating foods high in sugar content can lead to weight gain, which is a risk factor for developing diabetes. Eating more sugar than recommended American Heart Association recommends no more than six teaspoons a day for women and nine teaspoons for men leads to all kinds of health harms in addition to weight gain.

These health harms are all risk factors for the development of diabetes or can worsen complications. Weight gain can:

  • Raise blood pressure, cholesterol and trigelyceride levels.
  • Increase your risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Cause fat buildup in your liver.
  • Cause tooth decay.

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How Is Diabetes Treated

Treatments for diabetes depend on your type of diabetes, how well controlled your blood glucose level is and your other existing health conditions.


  • Type 1 diabetes: If you have this type, you must take insulin every day. Your pancreas no longer makes insulin.
  • Type 2 diabetes: If you have this type, your treatments can include medications , insulin and lifestyle changes such as losing weight, making healthy food choices and being more physically active.
  • Prediabetes: If you have prediabetes, the goal is to keep you from progressing to diabetes. Treatments are focused on treatable risk factors, such as losing weight by eating a healthy diet and exercising . Many of the strategies used to prevent diabetes are the same as those recommended to treat diabetes .
  • Gestational diabetes: If you have this type and your glucose level is not too high, your initial treatment might be modifying your diet and getting regular exercise. If the target goal is still not met or your glucose level is very high, your healthcare team may start medication or insulin.

Oral medications and insulin work in one of these ways to treat your diabetes:

  • Stimulates your pancreas to make and release more insulin.
  • Slows down the release of glucose from your liver .
  • Blocks the breakdown of carbohydrates in your stomach or intestines so that your tissues are more sensitive to insulin.
  • Helps rid your body of glucose through increased urination.

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