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What Is Type 2 Diabetes Definition


Can Diabetes Cause Headaches Or Dizziness

Diabetes mellitus (type 1, type 2) & diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

Yes, its possible to develop headaches or dizziness if your blood glucose level is too low usually below 70 mg/dL. This condition is called hypoglycemia. You can read about the other symptoms hypoglycemia causes in this article.Hypoglycemia is common in people with Type 1 diabetes and can happen in some people with Type 2 diabetes who take insulin or medications such as sulfonylureas.

What Is Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome

Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome develops more slowly than diabetic ketoacidosis. It occurs in patients with Type 2 diabetes, especially the elderly and usually occurs when patients are ill or stressed.If you have HHNS, you blood glucose level is typically greater than 600 mg/dL. Symptoms include frequent urination, drowsiness, lack of energy and dehydration. HHNS is not associated with ketones in the blood. It can cause coma or death. Youll need to be treated in the hospital.

What Medicines Do I Need To Treat My Type 2 Diabetes

Along with following your diabetes care plan, you may need diabetes medicines, which may include pills or medicines you inject under your skin, such as insulin. Over time, you may need more than one diabetes medicine to manage your blood glucose. Even if you dont take insulin, you may need it at special times, such as during pregnancy or if you are in the hospital. You also may need medicines for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or other conditions.

Learn more about medicines, insulin, and other diabetes treatments.


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Foods And Beverages To Limit

If youve been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, or even if youre trying to avoid diabetes and manage your weight, there are certain foods and beverages that you should limit if possible. These include:

While no one food, enjoyed every so often, should knock you off your healthy path, its a good idea to talk with your doctor about dietary restrictions based on your blood sugar levels. Some people may need to monitor their glucose more carefully than others after eating these foods.

How Can I Manage My Type 2 Diabetes

What are the Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

Managing your blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol, and quitting smoking if you smoke, are important ways to manage your type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle changes that include planning healthy meals, limiting calories if you are overweight, and being physically active are also part of managing your diabetes. So is taking any prescribed medicines. Work with your health care team to create a diabetes care plan that works for you.

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Managing Type 2 Diabetes

Managing type 2 diabetes requires teamwork. Youll need to work closely with your doctor, but a lot of the results depend on your choices.

Your doctor may want to perform periodic blood tests to determine your blood glucose levels. This will help determine how well youre managing the condition. If you take medication, these tests will help gauge how well its working.

Your doctor may also recommend a home monitoring system to test your own blood glucose levels between visits. Theyll explain to you how often you should use it and what your target range should be.

Because diabetes can increase your risk of cardiovascular disease, your doctor may want to monitor your blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels. If you have symptoms of heart disease, you may need additional tests. These tests may include an electrocardiogram or a cardiac stress test.

It may also be helpful to bring your family into the loop. Educating them about the warning signs of blood glucose levels that are too high or too low will allow them to help in an emergency.


Sglt2 Inhibitors And Glp

In 2018, new guidelines also recommended prescribing additional drugs for people with:

These are sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors or glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists.

For those with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and a high risk of heart failure, the guidelines advise doctors to prescribe an SGLT2 inhibitor.

GLP-1 receptor agonists work by increasing the amount of insulin the body produces and decreasing the amount of glucose that enters the bloodstream. It is an injectable medication. People may use it with metformin or alone. Side effects include gastrointestinal problems, such as nausea and a loss of appetite.

SLGT2 inhibitors are a new type of drug for lowering blood sugar levels. They work separately from insulin, and may be useful for people who are not ready to start using insulin. People can take it by mouth. Side effects include a higher risk of urinary and genital infections and ketoacidosis.


effective diabetes management , helping to regulate meal scheduling, physical activity, and when to take medication, including insulin.

While self-monitoring blood glucose machines vary, they will generally include a meter and test strip for generating readings. It will also involve using a lancing device to prick the skin for obtaining a small quantity of blood.

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Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

Symptoms, treatment, and complications from type 2 diabetes may vary from person to person. The following information will help you learn more about this disease and provide you with helpful tools, assessments and resources.

  • If left untreated or improperly managed, diabetes can lead to a variety of life-threatening complications.

What Oral Medications Are Approved To Treat Diabetes

Diabetes Mellitus | Type I and Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Over 40 medications have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of diabetes. Its beyond the scope of this article to review all of these drugs. Instead, well briefly review the main drug classes available, how they work and present the names of a few drugs in each class. Your healthcare team will decide if medication is right for you. If so, theyll decide which specific drug are best to treat your diabetes.


Diabetes medication drug classes include:

Many oral diabetes medications may be used in combination or with insulin to achieve the best blood glucose control. Some of the above medications are available as a combination of two medicines in a single pill. Others are available as injectable medications, for example, the GLP-1 agonist semaglutide and lixisenatide .

Always take your medicine exactly as your healthcare prescribes it. Discuss your specific questions and concerns with them.

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What Are The Risk Factors For Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Risk factors for type 1 diabetes include:


  • Family history: People with a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes have a higher risk of developing it themselves.
  • Age: Type 1 diabetes can appear at any age, but its most common among children and adolescents.
  • Geography: The prevalence of type 1 diabetes increases the farther away you are from the equator.
  • Genetics: The presence of certain genes points to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes.

Youre at risk of developing type 2 diabetes if you:

  • have prediabetes, or slightly elevated blood sugar levels
  • are carrying excess weight or have obesity
  • are Black, Hispanic, American Indian, or Alaska Native
  • have an immediate family member with type 2 diabetes

Can Diabetes Cause Hearing Loss

Scientists dont have firm answers yet but there appears to be a correlation between hearing loss and diabetes. According to the American Diabetes Association, a recent study found that hearing loss was twice as common in people with diabetes versus those who didnt have diabetes. Also, the rate of hearing loss in people with prediabetes was 30% higher compared with those who had normal blood glucose levels. Scientists think diabetes damages the blood vessels in the inner ear, but more research is needed.

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Can Diabetes Kill You

Yes, its possible that if diabetes remains undiagnosed and uncontrolled it can cause devastating harm to your body. Diabetes can cause heart attack, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure and coma. These complications can lead to your death. Cardiovascular disease in particular is the leading cause of death in adults with diabetes.

Heres How You Can Get Started:

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Basics
  • Work with your doctor to determine what level of physical activity you should engage in
  • Figure out how much time per day you can devote to exercise
  • Set fitness goalshaving clear goals can help you stay motivated
  • Consider where youll start working outthe gym, in your neighborhood, in a park?
  • Build different activities into your daily routine
  • Start slowly and allow for recovery time
  • Keep track of what you do and stay focused on your goals
  • Listen to your body

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Preeclampsia And Gestational Hypertension

A population-based, retrospective cohort study of 1,010,068 pregnant women examined the association between preeclampsia and gestational hypertension during pregnancy and the risk of developing diabetes post partum. Results showed the incidence rate of diabetes per 1000 person-years was 6.47 for women with preeclampsia and 5.26 for those with gestational hypertension, compared with 2.81 in women with neither condition. Risk was further elevated in women with preeclampsia or gesntational hypertension comorbid with gestational diabetes.

What Causes Diabetes

The cause of diabetes, regardless of the type, is having too much glucose circulating in your bloodstream. However, the reason why your blood glucose levels are high differs depending on the type of diabetes.

  • Causes of Type 1 diabetes: This is an immune system disease. Your body attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells in your pancreas. Without insulin to allow glucose to enter your cells, glucose builds up in your bloodstream. Genes may also play a role in some patients. Also, a virus may trigger the immune system attack.
  • Cause of Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes: Your bodys cells don’t allow insulin to work as it should to let glucose into its cells. Your body’s cells have become resistant to insulin. Your pancreas cant keep up and make enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Glucose levels rise in your bloodstream.
  • Gestational diabetes: Hormones produced by the placenta during your pregnancy make your bodys cells more resistant to insulin. Your pancreas cant make enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Too much glucose remains in your bloodstream.

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How Much Is Too Much

Insulin helps people living with diabetes live an active lifestyle. However, it can lead to serious side effects, especially if a person administers too much.

Excessive insulin can cause hypoglycemia, or extremely low blood sugar, and lead to nausea, sweating, and shaking.


It is essential that people measure insulin carefully, adjust their medications based on their needs, and eat a consistent diet that helps to balance blood sugar levels as much as possible.

In addition to insulin, other types of medication are available that can help people manage their condition.

Tips For Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

What is Diabetes Mellitus? – Understanding Diabetes – Diabetes Type 1 and Type 2

While you cant always prevent type 2 diabetes, there are a few lifestyle tweaks can help delay, or even prevent, the onset. This is true even if you have increased risk factors like prediabetes.

  • Diet. The best kind of diet to prevent type 2 diabetes is a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, healthy carbs, healthy fats, and very little refined sugar.
  • Exercise. According to the

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Can Type 2 Diabetes Be Cured

Type 2 diabetes cannot be cured, but people with the condition may be able to manage their type 2 diabetes through lifestyle changes and, if needed, diabetes medications to control blood sugar levels.


Its also emerging that some people who are overweight or obese can put their type 2 diabetes into remission by losing a substantial amount of weight, especially early in their diagnosis. Their blood sugar measurements return to healthy levels below the diabetes range. Its not a permanent solution, and diabetes could come back, so it needs to be maintained. However, many people were still in remission 2 years later. This should only be tried under the supervision of your doctor.

Type 2 Diabetes In Children

Type 2 diabetes in children is a growing issue. According to the American Diabetes Association , around 193,000 Americans under age 20 have type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

One 2016 study found that the incidence of type 2 diabetes in youth has increased to about 5,000 new cases per year. Another study from 2017 also showed a significant increase, particularly in minority races and ethnic groups.

If your child has been diagnosed with diabetes, their doctor will need to determine if its type 1 or type 2 before suggesting a specific treatment.

In the same way that lifestyle choices can help adults manage or even reverse their type 2 diabetes diagnosis, you can help lower your childs risk by encouraging them to eat well and to be physically active every day.


report the following statistics about diabetes in the United States:

  • Over 30 million people have diabetes. Thats around 10 percent of the population.
  • 1 in 4 people has no idea they have diabetes.
  • Prediabetes affects 84.1 million adults, and 90 percent of them are unaware of it.
  • Non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and Native American adults are to have diabetes as non-Hispanic white adults.

The ADA reports the following statistics:

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What Is The Treatment For Type 2 Diabetes

Treatment for this type of diabetes can include:

  • Diabetic eating plan
  • Foot problems such as wounds that don’t heal, loss of feeling, or pins and needles sensations
  • Neuropathy or nerve pain especially in the legs and feet
  • Sexual issues such as erectile dysfunction, inability to orgasm or feel full sensation
  • Urinary frequency
  • Unusual odor to urine

If you have diabetes, you have a higher risk of heart disease and heart attack. Because of this, it is important to control cholesterol and high blood pressure in addition to blood sugar. The good news is that all of these diseases are responsive to healthy lifestyle changes.


Deterrence And Patient Education

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Patients must be educated about the importance of blood glucose management to avoid complications associated with DM. Stress must be given on lifestyle management, including diet control and physical exercise. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is an important means for patients to take responsibility for their diabetes management. Regular estimation of glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and lipid levels is necessary.

Healthcare professionals should educate patients about the symptoms of hypoglycemia and required action .

Patients should be motivated to stop smoking. Emphasis is required on regular eye check-ups and foot care.

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What Problems Can Happen With Type 2 Diabetes

Sometimes, kids and teens with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, or obesity might develop thick, dark, velvet-like skin around the neck, armpits, groin, between fingers and toes, or on elbows and knees a cosmetic skin condition called acanthosis nigricans. This skin darkening can lighten over time with improvement in insulin resistance.


Polycystic ovary syndrome in girls is also often associated with insulin resistance. This hormone problem can make the ovaries become enlarged and develop cysts . Girls with PCOS might have irregular periods, might stop having periods, and may have excess facial and body hair growth. It also can cause fertility problems.

People with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes are also more likely to develop hypertension or abnormal levels of blood fats . When these problems cluster together, it’s called metabolic syndrome. People with metabolic syndrome are at risk for heart disease, stroke, and other health problems.

Diabetes also can cause heart disease and stroke, as well as other long-term complications, including eye problems, kidney disease, nerve damage, and gum disease. While these problems don’t usually show up in kids or teens who’ve had type 2 diabetes for only a few years, they can affect them in adulthood, particularly if their diabetes isn’t well controlled.

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Testing For Type 1 Diabetes

A simple blood test will let you know if you have diabetes. If youve gotten your blood sugar tested at a health fair or pharmacy, follow up at a clinic or doctors office to make sure the results are accurate.

If your doctor thinks you have type 1 diabetes, your blood may also be tested for autoantibodies that are often present with type 1 diabetes but not with type 2. You may have your urine tested for ketones , which also indicate type 1 diabetes instead of type 2.

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Living With Type 2 Diabetes

Having type 2 diabetes can bring up lots of questions about your lifestyle, but were here with the answers. From nutritional advice and recipes to help you know what to eat when you have type 2 diabetes, tips about diabetes and alcohol and keeping active and staying fit were here to support you.

Weve also got more information for different age groups, such as young people and older people, as well as practical school advice for parents of children with diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is also associated with other health conditions, such as thyroid disease and dental problems. Its important to be aware of these, so make sure to read our information about diabetes related conditions.

What Types Of Healthcare Professionals Might Be Part Of My Diabetes Treatment Team

What is Type 2 Diabetes?

Most people with diabetes see their primary healthcare provider first. Your provider might refer you to an endocrinologist/pediatric endocrinologist, a physician who specializes in diabetes care. Other members of your healthcare team may include an ophthalmologist , nephrologist , cardiologist , podiatrist , neurologist , gastroenterologist , registered dietician, nurse practitioners/physician assistants, diabetes educator, pharmacist, personal trainer, social worker, mental health professional, transplant team and others.

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