Chapter 5 Diabetes In Children And Youth
- Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases among children and youth.
- Type 1 diabetes remains the main form of the disease in this population, but type 2 diabetes, historically viewed as an adult disease, has been on the rise globally in children and youth for the last two decades.
- An increase in type 1 diabetes has also been documented in different countries, but the reasons are not completely elucidated. In Canada, the rate of type 1 diabetes among one to nine year olds has also increased, from 0.1% in 1998/99 to 0.2% in 2008/09.
- In 2008/09, more than 3,000 new cases of diabetes were reported among Canadian children and youth aged one to 19 years, bringing the number of prevalent cases to just under 26,000.
- For both types, the early onset of the disease increases the risk of related complications and lifelong consequences.
- Children and youth with type 1 diabetes are at a greater risk of life-threatening complications because they rely on daily doses of insulin.
- Adolescence can be a particularly difficult time for management of glycemic levels as teenagers take on this responsibility at the same time as hormonal changes affect glycemic levels and impact insulin requirements.
Additional Reports On Diabetes
- Diabetes in America, 3rd Edition provides comprehensive data on diabetes and its complications in the United States.
- National Diabetes Survey 2016 presents findings from the 2016 survey, which measures trends in diabetes awareness, knowledge, and behavior.
- Maps of Trends in Diabetes and Obesity show age-adjusted prevalence of obesity and diagnosed diabetes among adults, by county, in the United States in 2004, 2010, and 2016.
- Diabetes and African Americans provides prevalence data on diabetes and African Americans, including death rates, risk factors, and links to more information.
- Diabetes and American Indians/Alaska Natives provides prevalence data on diabetes in American Indians and Alaska Natives, including death rates, risk factors, and links to more information.
- Diabetes and Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders provides prevalence data on diabetes in Asian Americans and Pacific Islander Americans, including death rates, risk factors, and links to more information.
- Diabetes and Hispanic Americans provides prevalence data on diabetes in Hispanics/Latinos, including death rates, risk factors, and links to more information.
- World Health Organization provides information on the global burden of diabetes, prevention, management, and capacity for prevention and control, as well as a fact sheet on diabetes.
Sensation Problems And Amputation
Diabetes causes mild loss of sensation in the extremities in as many as 70 percent of adults who have it. Amputations of lower extremities may eventually be necessary, especially for people with blood vessel disease. More than 60 percent of all nontraumatic amputations of lower limbs occur in people with diabetes. Approximately 73,000 lower-limb amputations were performed in diabetics age 20 and older.
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What Is The Trend Of Diagnosed Diabetes Over Time
Between 20032004 and 20132014, there was a relative increase of 37.3%Footnote i in the age-standardized prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, from 5.6% to 7.8%. During the same period, the age-standardized incidence rate fluctuated. It increased until 20062007, from 6.7 to 7.6 per 1,000 population, but then it decreased to 6.3 per 1,000 population by 20132014, slightly below its original level . This implies that factors other than an increase in new diabetes diagnoses contributed to this rise in prevalence, including the fact that Canadians with diabetes now live longer. With the growth and aging of the Canadian population, the number of Canadians living with diabetes is also expected to increase in the coming years.
Figure 3: Age-standardized prevalence and incidence of diagnosed diabetes among Canadians aged 1 year and older, 20032004 to 20132014
Notes: Age-standardized estimates to the 2011 Canadian population. The 95% confidence intervals are not shown as they were too small to be illustrated.Data source: Public Health Agency of Canada, using Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System data files contributed by provinces and territories, May 2017.
How Can Diabetes Be Prevented And Managed
It is possible to control certain risk factors for type 2 diabetes, including making healthy lifestyle choices like eating well, exercising, and reaching/maintaining a healthy weight. For individuals with pre-diabetes, medication can also help prevent the development of type 2 diabetes.Footnote 4 Since the causes of type 1 diabetes are not all well understood, no measures are currently recommended to prevent this disease.
It is also possible to remain healthy with diabetes through appropriate management and care. Treatment plans and targets are based on each individual’s profile, but they all aim to avoid short-term risks of high or low blood sugar levels and to prevent or delay long-term complications. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle and a healthy weight, together with medication to control blood sugar levels and vascular risk factors, are common cornerstones of diabetes management.Footnote 1
Diabetes Statistics In America
- More than 34 million Americans have diabetes, which is nearly 11% of the U.S. population.
- Every 17 seconds, an American is diagnosed with diabetes.
- There are 1.5 million new cases of diabetes in the United States each year.
Diabetes statistics by state
The states with the highest percentage of adults with diagnosed diabetes are:
- West Virginia
*The statistics are for adult cases, which were updated in September 2020
Chapter 6 Diabetes Among First Nations Inuit And Mtis Populations
- The Aboriginal population in Canada is a diverse group composed of individuals of First Nations, Inuit and Métis heritage. Diabetes prevalence varies between and within each group according to its unique characteristics.
- It is important to account for the younger age structure in the First Nations, Inuit and Métis populations when comparing the prevalence of diabetes to that of the non-Aboriginal population. Age-standardized rates show the prevalence of diabetes was 17.2% among First Nations individuals living on-reserve, 10.3% among First Nations individuals living off-reserve, and 7.3% among Métis, compared to 5.0% in the non-Aboriginal population. The age-standardized prevalence rate of diabetes in Inuit populations was comparable to the one seen in the general Canadian population.
- Aboriginal individuals are generally diagnosed at a younger age than non-Aboriginal individuals, and Aboriginal females experience higher rates of gestational diabetes than non-Aboriginal females. Complications of diabetes are also more frequently seen among the Aboriginal population than in the non-Aboriginal population.
- The socio-cultural, biological, environmental and lifestyle changes seen in the First Nations, Inuit and Métis populations in the last half century have contributed significantly to increased rates of diabetes and its complications.
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Diabetes Statistics By Type
There are four types of diabetes:
- Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune attack on pancreas cells stops them from creating insulin, so people with Type 1 need to take insulin shots every day. In most cases, Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed in children and teens, but it can manifest in adults as well.
- Type 2 diabetes: People with Type 2 can produce insulin, but their bodies resist it. When blood sugar is consistently high, the pancreas continuously pumps out insulin, and eventually, cells become overexposed. Type 2 is by far the most common type of diabetes and one that typically develops in adults however, the rate of Type 2 diabetes in children is increasing.
- Gestational diabetes: This type only occurs in pregnant women and typically goes away after childbirth however, half of women who have gestational diabetes will develop Type 2 diabetes later in life. Treatment includes a doctor-recommended exercise and meal plan. Sometimes daily blood glucose tests and insulin injections are necessary.
- Prediabetes: Prediabetes isnt technically diabetes. Its more like a precursor. A prediabetic persons blood glucose is consistently above average, but not high enough to warrant a full diabetes diagnosis. People with prediabetes can help prevent Type 2 diabetes by implementing a healthy diet, increased physical activity, and stress management.
Heres how prevalent each type of diabetes is:
How Many Canadians Are Newly Diagnosed With Diabetes Each Year
In 20132014, close to 200,000 Canadians were newly diagnosed with diabetes . This represented 0.4 new cases per 1,000 population among children and youth and 7.6 new cases per 1,000 population among adults. Following a pattern similar to the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, incidence generally increases with age and is higher among males than among females , both overall and in most age groups .
Figure 2: Incidence of diagnosed diabetes , by age group and sex, Canada, 20132014
Note: The 95% confidence interval shows an estimated range of values which is likely to include the true value 19 times out of 20.Data source: Public Health Agency of Canada, using Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System data files contributed by provinces and territories, May 2017.
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Prediabetes Facts And Statistics
Prediabetes is a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. Prediabetes usually occurs in people whose bodies may not be able to effectively use the insulin they make or their pancreas may not produce enough insulin to keep their blood glucose levels in the normal range. People with prediabetes are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Learn more about prediabetes.
- An estimated 88 million adults ages 18 years or older have prediabetes. This includes
- nearly 29 million adults ages 18 to 44 years
- more than 35 million adults ages 45 to 64 years
- more than 24 million adults ages 65 or older (46.6 percent of U.S. adults in this age group
View the full report: National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2020 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
What Are Some Juvenile Diabetes Statistics
More commonly known as Type 1 diabetes, juvenile diabetes is typically diagnosed in children and is managed by daily insulin shots. Around 1.6 million Americans have Type 1 diabetes, including 200,000 youth, and there are approximately 64,000 new cases per year. According to JDRF, between 2001 and 2009, there was a 21% increase in Type 1 diabetes prevalence in people younger than 20.
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Prevalence Of Diabetes And Ethnicity
Ethnicity has a big role as diabetes is five times as likely to develop in Pakistani women, two and a half times as likely in Indian women and diabetes is four times more prevalent in Bangladeshi and Indian people as a whole.
Generally speaking diabetes prevalence is often six times higher for people of South Asian origin and three times higher for those of African origin.
It is unsure why this is the case however a many number of risk factors could be the reason. Poor economy and lifestyle are noted to lead to unhealthy dietary patterns, which is a possible cause with genetics being another potential factor.
Half Of Americans Have Diabetes Or A High Risk For It And Many Of Them Are Unaware
Baseball, hot dogs, apple pie and diabetes .
Thats right. The metabolic condition is about as American as you can get, according to a new national report card on diabetes released Tuesday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
The report shows that nearly half of Americans have diabetes or prediabetes, which puts them at high risk for the condition. A good number of these folks havent been diagnosed and dont even realize their predicament.
People with diabetes have too much sugar in their blood. If the disease isnt controlled, they can wind up with heart disease, nerve damage, kidney problems, eye damage and other serious health problems.
The new report combines data from the CDC, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Indian Health Service and the Census Bureau. Heres a numerical look at what they reveal about diabetes in America.
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Countries With High Diabetes Prevalence
The International Diabetes Federation currently states that the top 5 countries with the highest amount of people with diabetes are as follows:
- China: 109 million
All of the top 10 nations are small islands.
In terms of non-islands, the nation with the highest diabetes prevalence is Saudi Arabia with a 17.6% prevalence. The IDF notes that three quarters of the worlds adult population are living in low and middle-income countries.
Diabetes Statistics By Age
Theres a greater prevalence of diabetes among older age groups, especially for Type 2 diabetes, which takes longer to develop.
- Of the Americans with diagnosed diabetes, 3.6 million are 18 to 44 years old, 11.7 million are 45 to 64 years old, and 11.5 million are older than 65.
- There are 210,000 cases of diagnosed diabetes among children and adolescents younger than 20, including 187,000 cases of Type 1 diabetes.
- Of the Americans with undiagnosed diabetes, 1.4 million are 18 to 44, 3.1 million are 45 to 64, and 2.9 million are older than 65.
- Approximately 24.2 million adults aged 65 and older have prediabetes.
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Diabetes Facts And Figures
- More than 4.9 million people in the UK have diabetes
- 13.6 million people are now at increased risk of type 2 diabetes in the UK
- 850,000 people are currently living with type 2 diabetes but are yet to be diagnosed
- However, it’s important to remember that diabetes is not a death sentence. Research has consistently shown that for some people, combined lifestyle interventions – including diet, physical activity and sustained weight loss – can be effective in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes by about 50%.
More People Than Ever Have Diabetes More People Than Ever Are At Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes If Nothing Changes We Predict That 55 Million People Will Have Diabetes In The Uk By 2030
Were fighting for a world where diabetes can do no harm.
We do it by campaigning to make sure everyone with diabetes gets the care they need to live well with diabetes. We provide advice and support so people can get to grips with their condition. And our research increases what we know about diabetes, discovers new treatments and will, one day, find a cure.
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Why Is Diabetes Underestimated In The Australian Population
The prevalence rates presented above are likely to underestimate the true prevalence of diabetes in the Australian population. This is because they are based on people who have received a formal medical diagnosis of diabetes. However, Australian studies have shown that many people have undiagnosed diabetes.
Million Americans Now Have Diabetes
According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 14 percent of U.S adults have diabetes — 10 percent know it and more than 4 percent are undiagnosed.
“Diabetes remains a chronic health problem in this country, affecting some 30 million people,” said lead researcher Mark Eberhardt, an epidemiologist at CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics .
A number of factors may be responsible for the increases in diabetes, he said. This includes an aging population, since diabetes strikes the elderly more often.
In addition, the obesity epidemic is also driving the growing number of people with diabetes, Eberhardt said.
People need to be tested for diabetes even if they think they don’t have it, he said. The data showed that a third of those in the study didn’t think they had diabetes, but tests showed they did, Eberhardt said.
According to the American Diabetes Association, the vast majority — about 95 percent — of diabetes cases are type 2, which is often tied to overweight or obesity. About five percent of diabetes cases are type 1, which can arise early in life and is not linked with lifestyle factors.
According to the report, nearly 16 percent of men have diabetes, and about 12 percent of women. Moreover, the odds of developing diabetes, both diagnosed and undiagnosed, increases with age.
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Unreported Cases Among Ethnic Groups
Meanwhile, another study done by researchers from the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which was published in the same issue of JAMA, showed more than half of Asian Americans and nearly half of Hispanic Americans with diabetes are undiagnosed.
At 51 percent, Asian Americans have the highest proportion of undiagnosed diabetes among all ethnic and racial subgroups studied. In all, 21 percent of that population had diabetes.
Hispanic Americans had the highest level of diabetes at nearly 23 percent. Of those, 49 percent were undiagnosed.
Andy Menke, Ph.D., epidemiologist at Social & Scientific Systems Inc. in Silver Spring, Maryland, said there is no clear-cut reason for these distinctions by race and ethnicity.
He theorized it may have something to do with differences in genetics, diet, and access to healthcare. Menke also attributed possible differences to cultural traditions regarding obesity.
Menke emphasized the need to better educate people on the risk factors of diabetes. Those factors include obesity, older age, and family history.